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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 129-130

Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine inequity and gross domestic product

1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
2 Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran; Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden

Date of Submission24-Aug-2021
Date of Acceptance14-Sep-2021
Date of Web Publication29-Sep-2021

Correspondence Address:
Amir H Pakpour
Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/shb.shb_100_21

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How to cite this article:
Alimoradi Z, Lin CY, Pakpour AH. Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine inequity and gross domestic product. Asian J Soc Health Behav 2021;4:129-30

How to cite this URL:
Alimoradi Z, Lin CY, Pakpour AH. Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine inequity and gross domestic product. Asian J Soc Health Behav [serial online] 2021 [cited 2023 Dec 3];4:129-30. Available from: http://www.healthandbehavior.com/text.asp?2021/4/4/129/326952

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently one of the major health issues worldwide.[1] The significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated rapid and preventive responses by governments to control the disease.[2] Most early disease control strategies include human mobility reduction (e.g., travel restrictions and mandatory quarantine), closure or lockdown (e.g., schools, businesses, and public spaces closure), and health policies modifications (e.g., using rapid COVID-19 test or polymerase chain reaction test).[3] Over the centuries, vaccines are an effective way to combat the spread of diseases and one of the most effective and reliable methods to prevent disease.[4] Past studies and ongoing clinical trials have shown that safe and effective vaccines for COVID-19 are the best tools for controlling ongoing epidemics.[5] The World Health Organization estimates that at least 65% of a given population should be vaccinated to prevent the spread of the virus to protect the population.[6] Given the remarkable effectiveness of vaccines, their availability gives people a sense of relief that they can better protect their health. However, several countries are still experiencing rapidly increasing cases of the disease and causing mutations and have not implemented the general vaccination program effectively.[7]

While efforts are being made to prevent the spread of the virus, the choice and implementation of pandemic control policies vary considerably between countries.[2] One of the determining factors in the allocation of expenditures in the health-care sector is the income of countries, which is usually expressed in terms of Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.[8] There is a positive relationship between the per capita cost of health care and per capita income in developed countries, but per capita income also explains the high percentage of changes in costs.[9] The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the relationship between GDP and the implementation of general vaccination policies at the international level.

The rate of implementation of the general vaccination policy was considered based on the dose of vaccine per 1000 population, the total dose of the vaccine, the number of people vaccinated, and the number of people with full vaccination. The data were extracted from two international websites on August 21, 2021.[10],[11] Data from 48 countries were fully available for this assessment [Table 1]. The results of this overview showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between GDP and the total dose of injected vaccines (r = 0.698 P < 0.001). Therefore, it seems that as countries increase their gross national income, they can spend more money on the health sector to control COVID-19 and provide vaccines to implement preventive public policies. Pardhan and Drydakis found, in the first wave of coronary heart disease among European countries, there was a negative relationship between the number of new COVID-19 cases and per capita GDP, after controlling for health determinants including general health expenditures. Moreover, the countries with the highest per capita GDP in Europe experienced the least change in the new COVID-19 cases during this period.[12] Therefore, we suggest that the rich countries should consider assisting the poor countries in their vaccination shortage given that the COVID-19 pandemic can only be under control when the herd immunity is met worldwide.
Table 1: The association of the gross domestic product with the implementation of general vaccination indicators

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  References Top

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McKibbin W, Fernando R. The global macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19: Seven scenarios. Asian Econ Papers 2021;20:1-30.  Back to cited text no. 3
Al-Qerem WA, Jarab AS. COVID-19 vaccination acceptance and its associated factors among a middle eastern population. Front Public Health 2021;9:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 4
Dhama K, Sharun K, Tiwari R, Dhawan M, Emran TB, Rabaan AA, et al. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy-Reasons and solutions to achieve a successful global vaccination campaign to tackle the ongoing pandemic. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021;17:3495-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
Roghani A, Panahi S. The global distribution of COVID-19 vaccine: The role of macro-socioeconomics measures. Medrxiv 2021. Available from: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/medrxiv/early/2021/02/12/2021.02.09.21251436.full.pdf. [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 03].  Back to cited text no. 6
Caserotti M, Girardi P, Rubaltelli E, Tasso A, Lotto L, Gavaruzzi T. Associations of COVID-19 risk perception with vaccine hesitancy over time for Italian residents. Soc Sci Med 2021;272:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
Lago-Peñas S, Cantarero-Prieto D, Blázquez-Fernández C. On the relationship between GDP and health care expenditure: A new look. Econ Model 2013;32:124-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
Alvarado R, Ponce P, Criollo A, Córdova K, Khan MK. Environmental degradation and real per capita output: New evidence at the global level grouping countries by income levels. J Clean Prod 2018;189:13-20.  Back to cited text no. 9
Holder J. Tracking coronavirus vaccinations around the world. New York times; September 10, 2021. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/world/covid-vaccinations-tracker.html. [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 03].  Back to cited text no. 10
Anonymouse. World GDP Ranking 2021. World Economic Outlook Database; 2021. Available from: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2021/April. [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 03].  Back to cited text no. 11
Pardhan S, Drydakis N. Associating the change in new COVID-19 Cases to GDP per Capita in 38 European Countries in the first wave of the pandemic. Front Public Health 2020;8:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 12


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