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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2022
Volume 5 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 147-192

Online since Tuesday, November 22, 2022

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Nutrition status of lower-income older adults in Thailand during COVID-19 pandemic p. 147
Paolo Miguel Manalang Vicerra, Jose Carlo G. De Pano, Juniesy Martinez Estanislao
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_150_22  
Introduction: The nutrition status of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic is an area of concern. Lower-income older population of Thailand in particular has been affected with regard to their employment, income, and health status. This study focused on the prevalence of nutrition statuses using body mass index (BMI) of this age group and their association with sociodemographic, health behavior, social connectedness, and economic change factors during the pandemic. Methods: Using the 2021 Survey on Housing and Support Services for Poor Older Adults, a sample of lower-income individuals aged 55 years and over was collected from the five regions of Thailand. The data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression where being underweight and overweight were compared with normal weight as the reference. Relative risk ratios (RRR) were presented. Results: Living in regions other than Bangkok was found to be associated with a higher risk of underweight status and lower risk of being overweight. Having primary level (RRR = 0.600, P < 0.05) and above primary level of education (RRR = 0.952, P < 0.05) significantly related with lower risk of low BMI. Income inadequacy during the outbreak was found to be positively associated with both underweight (RRR = 1.514, P < 0.05) and overweight (RRR = 1.145, P < 0.05) statuses. Conclusion: The results show the need to understand the dynamics of social backgrounds, such as poverty experience, in order to address the needs and issues of vulnerable older people, particularly during pandemic times.
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Public trust, preparedness, and the influencing factors regarding COVID-19 pandemic situation in Iran: A population-based cross-sectional study p. 154
Hamidreza Khankeh, Mohammad Pourebrahimi, Mehrdad Farrokhi Karibozorg, Mohammadjavad Hosseinabadi-Farahani, Maryam Ranjbar, Mariye Jenabi Ghods, Mohammad Saatchi
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_155_22  
Introduction: Preparedness a social behavior with public trust the prerequisite for proper social functioning can reduce disaster sufferings. The aim of this study was to determine the public trust, preparedness, and the influencing factors regarding the COVID-19 pandemic situation in Iran. Methods: This online cross-sectional study conducted on Tehran residents (≥18 years) during the fifth epidemic wave. The tool designed to assess the intention to prepare, public trust, and the subscales. T-test used to compare the means and linear regression to determine the factors influencing on the outcomes. Results: About 26.5% of 407 participants (mean age standard deviation: 40.8 (12.8) years) showed low trust. The mean levels of total trust (P = 0.011), general trust (P = 0.048), and trust to managing authorities (P = 0.018) were significantly lower in men. Adjusted to confounding variables, total trust was lower in men (ß = −3.8, P = 0.01) and less educated (ß = −6.48, P = 0.02) but higher in high-income (ß = 5.7, P = 0.02) people. Only 20% of people were highly prepared. Intention to prepare was higher in families having the elderly (ß = 5.72.8, P = 0.048). Conclusion: Low trust in the managing authorities and their provided information tend to less considering health and preparedness measures in society.
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Prevalence of malnutrition and its related factors among urban and rural primary school students, Abadan, in 2019 p. 162
Saeedeh Elhami, Nasim Hatefimoadab, Farshid Mohammad Mousaei, Samaneh Naeimi, Maryam Azizi, Daniyal Sayadi Moghadam, Marzieh Ghassemi
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_83_22  
Introduction: Malnutrition is one of the most important public health problems worldwide and has adverse effects on the physical as well as mental capacities of individuals, especially school-age children. This descriptive-analytical study aimed to investigate the nutritional status of primary-school students in urban and rural areas of Abadan. Methods: Multi-stage stratified-cluster and simple random sampling was performed on urban and rural primary school students in Abadan with the demographic information, height, and weight of 1133 students measured. Furthermore, the indices of short stature for age (stunting), low weight for age (underweight), and low weight for height (wasting) in children were calculated and compared with the National Center for Health Statistics standard. Results: The results revealed that the average age of malnourished children was 9.56 years and the average age of normal children was 8.97 years. The malnutrition prevalence among primary school children of Abadan was 8%, and there was a poor correlation between factors such as sex (P = 0/8), place of residence (P = 0/4), plus school place (P = 0/9), and malnutrition, while there was a positive relationship between with the parents' level of education and malnutrition (P = 0/02). Thus, the most influential factor seems to be the parents' level of education and awareness. Conclusion: Steps can be taken to promote the social and cultural level of families and prevent malnutrition as well as improve the nutritional status of society through collaboration among various institutions, holding educational classes with the presence of education departments, and encouraging families. The household economic status is also one of the important factors in the implementation of these educational classes that must be considered.
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Weight stigma in Indonesian young adults: Validating the indonesian versions of the weight self-stigma questionnaire and perceived weight stigma scale p. 169
Siti Rahayu Nadhiroh, Ira Nurmala, Iqbal Pramukti, S Tiara Tivany, Laila Wahyuning Tyas, Afina Puspita Zari, Wai Chuen Poon, Yan-Li Siaw, Ruckwongpatr Kamolthip, Paratthakonkun Chirawat, Chung-Ying Lin
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_189_22  
Introduction: Weight stigma, a psychological-related health issue associated with obesity or weight problems, is one of the major concerns within public health. Indeed, weight stigma may cause health and behavioral problems, such as a lack of motivation to exercise. Assessing weight stigma is thus essential. Both the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (WSSQ) and the Perceived Weight Stigma Scale (PWSS) are valid and reliable instruments that have been used in several countries. However, WSSQ and PWSS have never been used in Indonesia. Therefore, this study aimed to translate and validate both WSSQ and PWSS in Indonesian for Indonesian young adults. Methods: Via an online survey with convenience sampling, Indonesian college students (n = 438) completed the Indonesian WSSQ, PWSS, and depression anxiety stress scale-21 (DASS-21), and provided their height and weight. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Rasch analysis, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were used for data analysis. Results: The internal consistency was satisfactory for the WSSQ (α = 0.90 and ω = 0.93). One PWSS item did not fit well and was removed. The revised 9-item PWSS had satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.82 and ω = 0.87). The CFA and Rasch results supported a two-factor structure for the WSSQ, and a one-factor structure for the PWSS. WSSQ and PWSS were significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.32; P < 0.001). Both WSSQ and PWSS were significantly and positively associated with the DASS-21 score (r = 0.18 to r = 0.48; all P < 0.001); WSSQ was significantly and positively associated with body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.17 to r = 0.50; all P < 0.01). Conclusion: The translated Indonesian versions of WSSQ and PWSS can be used as instruments to assess weight stigma in Indonesian young adults.
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Association of sleep quality and duration with gestational diabetes mellitus: The Qazvin maternal and neonatal metabolic study p. 180
Sima Hashemipour, Fatemeh Lalooha, Fatemeh Sadat Etemad, Fatemeh Habibi Nozari
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_127_22  
Introduction: Association of a good sleep quality and adequate nocturnal sleep duration with metabolic health has been reported in several epidemiological studies. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of sleep quality and duration on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurrence. Methods: In this longitudinal study, 821 pregnant women with the gestational age of ≤14 weeks were included from 2018 to 2020 by convenience sampling. The participants were evaluated in terms of sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and nocturnal sleep duration. They were also examined for GDM at gestational weeks 24–28. Two GDM and non-GDM groups were compared regarding sleep quality and duration. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent association of sleep-related variables with GDM occurrence. Results: The final analysis was performed on 658 participants. The means of age and gestational week of the participants were 29.8 ± 4.9 years and 8.8 ± 4.4 weeks, respectively, on inclusion in the study. During follow-up, GDM occurred in 104 (15.8%) participants. Poor sleep quality, sleep quality components, and nocturnal sleep duration showed no significant difference between groups. The frequency of night sleep duration <7 h was higher in the GDM group compared to the non-GDM group (14.4% vs. 7.8%, P = 0.028). However, in the multivariate analysis, there was no independent association between nocturnal sleep <7 h and GDM occurrence. Conclusion: Sleep quality, nocturnal sleep duration, and short nocturnal sleep duration had no independent association with GDM occurrence.
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Do perceived barriers, benefits, and severity have effect on mask-wearing habits during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic? p. 186
Raheleh Soltani, Mohsen Shamsi, Atefe Moradi
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_52_22  
Introduction: The centers for disease prevention and control advise wearing a cloth face covering in public to prevent the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019, especially in situations when maintaining social distancing is challenging. As a result, the current study sought to identify the factors influencing mask behavior using constructs from the health belief model (HBM). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 participants who were referred to the Health Centers of Arak, Iran, from November 2021 to December 2021. The participants were selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire and consisted of sociodemographic data, mask-wearing behavior, and structures of HBM regarding mask wearing. Results: The participants' mean (standard deviation) age was 37.9 (12) years (ranging from 18–81). The rate of “always” wearing a face mask was 57.9%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that mask-wearing behavior was associated with demographic variables (age and gender), perceived severity (β = 0.17, P < 0.001), perceived benefits (β = 0.24, P < 0.001), and self-efficacy (β = 0.35, P < 0.001). The HBM constructs explained 46% of the variance of mask-wearing behavior (F [9,301] = 30, R = 0.68, [P < 0.001]). Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, HBM constructs can be treated as a predictor of mask wearing. Based on this predictor (self-efficacy, perceived severity, and benefits), effective interventions and healthy messages can be designed to improve mask-wearing behavior.
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