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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2023
Volume 6 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 93-140

Online since Monday, September 18, 2023

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Social trust and COVID-appropriate behavior: Learning from the pandemic Highly accessed article p. 93
Brajaballav Kar, Nilamadhab Kar, Madhu Chhanda Panda
Introduction: General trust and trust in various social institutions/agents are argued to positively influence the outcome, more so, in a crisis. Mitigating a crisis requires actions from individuals, family, friends, co-workers, various policymaking, and implementing agencies, media, and other agencies with whom people interact. In the COVID-19 situation, people individuals did not have a choice but to access essential services even with the risk of infection. Personal experiences also guide individuals' trust in various social groups and are responsible for taking individual action of protecting themselves in the pandemic. To what extent people trusted various social groups and observed appropriate behavior is investigated in this research. Methods: Responses were collected through a structured, web-based questionnaire where respondents self-reported their trust in various social agents and the extent to which they observed COVID-appropriate behavior. Respondents primarily belonged to the eastern part of India. Results: This study finds significant demographic differences in observing appropriate behavior leading to an identification of a vulnerable group. Second, trust in the inner group (family, friends, neighbors, and co-workers among others) is least important whereas trust in professionals and administrative institutions is the most important. Trust in the central government, media, and politicians among others is counterproductive to observing the appropriate behavior. Conclusion: People repose higher trust in professionals and administrative institutions in a crisis situation. Professional and administrative leadership helps in more effective crisis management leading to better behavioral compliance of the public. Any other leadership may be ineffective or counter-productive.
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Psychological experiences and perceived social support: A study on Indian mothers of children with type 1 diabetes p. 105
Smruti Pusalkar, Ilika Guha Majumdar
Introduction: Mothers are often the primary caregivers of children in Indian homes. Mothers of children with Type 1 diabetes experience an emotional toll of this challenging responsibility that the lack of social support can exacerbate. Health care for children with Type 1 diabetes in India commonly addresses the medical condition and its associated symptoms, whereas mothers, who bear the primary responsibility of the children's care, are most often neglected. This study aimed to understand the psychological experiences and perceived social support of Indian mothers whose children are diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: This phenomenological research was conducted using semi-structured interviews with mothers using purposive sampling between the ages of 24 and 45 years (n = 13) and analyzed using thematic analysis. The data analysis and collection were done between January 2022 and December 2022. Results: Thematic analysis revealed six main themes of psychological distress, multifold strain, poor Type 1 diabetes mellitus education and stigma, need for social and familial support, caregiver burden, and coping. The findings from this research suggest that such experiences can make it difficult for them to cope with their child's diabetes and have a negative impact on their mental health. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for culture-appropriate interventions to address the social and emotional needs of such mothers. It is essential to educate families and the community as a whole about the needs of both mothers and children with Type 1 diabetes.
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Sleep and subjective well-being among chinese adolescents: Resilience as a mediator p. 112
Yuanyuan An, Xiaopeng Ji, Linli Zhou, Jianghong Liu
Introduction: The relationships among sleep, resilience, and subjective well-being (SWB) are less studied in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the associations between multiple sleep domains (sleep duration and quality, and chronotype) and SWB in Chinese adolescents, and whether resilience mediated these relationships. Methods: We enrolled 455 adolescents in Jintan and Nanjing cities (Jiangsu Province, China) in 2017–2018. Sleep variables included sleep duration (time in bed [TIB], interval between bedtime and waketime), sleep quality (global score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), and chronotype (mid-sleep time on weekends corrected for sleep debt). We used the Chinese version of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale to measure resilience, and the satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale to measure SWB. Mediation analyses were performed using structural equation modeling with a bootstrap approach. Results: The associations between sleep duration/sleep quality and SWB were fully mediated by resilience. Specifically, longer TIB (B = 2.04, P = 0.03) and lower PSQI scores (B = −1.60, P < 0.001) were associated with greater resilience, which in turn, was associated with greater latent SWB constructed from happiness and life satisfaction (BTIB = 0.12, BPSQI = 0.11, P < 0.05). Later chronotype was associated with lower happiness (B = −0.52, P = 0.01) and life satisfaction (B = −0.76, P = 0.02) but not resilience and latent SWB. Conclusion: Sleep duration and sleep quality were positively associated with latent SWB, and resilience is a mediator. Later, chronotype was independently associated with lower levels of SWB indicators, including happiness and life satisfaction. The study findings highlight the importance of optimal sleep in promoting resilience and SWB during adolescence.
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Toward an integrated framework for examining the addictive use of smartphones among young adults p. 119
Christine Nya-Ling Tan
Introduction: Despite the growing concern over addictive smartphone use among young adults, there is a lack of understanding of the specific mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. This study aims to fill this gap by integrating the stimulus-organism-response–cognitive-adaptive-normative model to examine the drivers of habitual smartphone behavior and addictive use and the role of habitual behavior as a mediator. Methods: A quantitative method employing a purposive sampling technique was used to collect self-administered online questionnaires between May and August 2016 from 705 young adults (aged 17–30 years) in Malaysia. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used. Results: Convenience (β =0.256, t = 5.993, P < 0.001), social needs (β =0.349, t = 8.661, P < 0.001), and social influence (β =0.108, t = 3.108, P < 0.01) are positively associated with habitual behavior. However, convenience (β =0.041, t = 0.997) and social needs (β = −0.027, t = 0.682) are not associated with addictive use, even though social influence (β =0.195, t = 5.116, P < 0.001) did significantly influenced addictive use. Furthermore, habitual behavior is an extremely strong determinant of addictive use (β =0.505, t = 13.837, P < 0.001). The results also indicated that habitual behavior partially mediated the relationship between the drivers and addictive use. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the importance of the drivers (i.e., convenience, social needs, and social influence) in shaping habitual behavior and addictive use so that policies can promote responsible and healthy smartphone use among young adults.
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Multilevel zero inflated and hurdle models for under five-child mortality in Indonesia p. 126
Madona Yunita Wijaya
Introduction: Overcoming under-five mortality rate remains a great challenge for Indonesia to meet the national target despite its notable advancements and progress in reducing child mortality rate. Therefore, understanding risk factors of under-five mortality is essential to enhance the health and well-being of children. This research seeks to investigate associated factors of under-five mortality in Indonesia by using the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey data. Methods: The multilevel zero-inflated and multilevel hurdle models are considered to handle unobserved heterogeneity that may occur at province level, and to model prevalence and risk of child death as a joint process, which are reported in terms of odds ratio (OR) and incidence ratio rate (IRR), respectively. Results: Lower number of household members (IRR = 0.803, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.784–0.823), older mother's age at first birth (IRR = 1.020, 95% CI: 1.007–1.032), higher number of children ever born (IRR = 1.491, 95% CI: 1.450–1.533), lower mother's education (IRR = 1.224, 95% CI: 1.013–1.479), and lower father's education (IRR = 1.232, 95% CI: 1.015–1.495) are significantly associated with higher total death numbers in children before the age of 5 years. Furthermore, the odds of no child death are significantly higher among mother who use a contraceptive method (OR = 11.088, 95% CI: 6.659–18.462) and among household in higher quantile wealth (OR = 1.133, 95% CI: 1.005–1.277). Conclusion: This evidence-based empirical highlights priority risk factors that might provide insight for policymakers, health professional, and the community in general to design appropriate intervention to help reduce the burden of under-five mortality in the country.
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The efficacy of an online family-based cognitive behavioral therapy on psychological distress, family cohesion, and adaptability of divorced head-of-household women in Iran: A randomized controlled trial p. 133
Farzaneh Golboni, Zainab Alimoradi, Marc N Potenza, Amir H Pakpour
Introduction: The family may be negatively impacted by divorce and its adverse outcomes including psychological problems and disturbances in the structure and functioning of families. The present study aimed to determine the efficacy of an online family-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention on psychological distress, family cohesion, and adaptability of divorced head-of-household women. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 100 divorced head-of-household women supported by the state welfare organization of Iran participated and were randomly divided into intervention group (n = 50) and active control group (n = 50). Participants in the intervention group received six educational app-based online sessions on family-based CBT. Participants in the control group received an online family-based CBT session and an online information on breast self-examination using the same app. Anxiety, depression, family adaptability, and cohesion were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. Linear mixed-effects modeling with random intercepts and slopes was used to analyze the data. Results: The mean and standard deviation of measures of anxiety, depression, cohesion, and adaptability scores immediately after the intervention (9.42 ± 1.78, 9.58 ± 2.21, 36.36 ± 3.78, and 36.30 ± 3.97, respectively) and 3 months after the intervention (9.90 ± 1.84, 9.40 ± 1.53, 36.38 ± 4.30, and 36.42 ± 4.38, respectively) in the intervention group differed significantly from those before the intervention (11.30 ± 1.77, 11.56 ± 1.31, 23.82 ± 3.78, and 23.80 ± 3.85, respectively). Changes in the mean scores of anxiety, depression, cohesion, and adaptability variables differed significantly before and immediately after the intervention and before and 3 months after the intervention. Conclusion: Online family-based CBT appears efficacious in improving the psychological status of divorced head-of-household women and the cohesion and adaptability of their families.
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