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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2023
Volume 6 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-45

Online since Friday, February 10, 2023

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Association between perceived social support and self-management in people with multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study p. 1
Elahe Baharian, Shahla Abolhassani, Marzieh Alijani
Introduction: The physiological and psychological limitations resulting from multiple sclerosis (MS) can decrease social interactions. Furthermore, self-management has become popular in the control of chronic diseases such as MS. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived social support and self-management in MS patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted for the years 2019–2020. Patients were recruited through the MS clinic located in Kashani Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, by convenience sampling. The research was performed on a group of 212 MS patients who completed a Medical outcome study social support scale (MOS-SSS), the MS Self-Management Scale, and basic clinical and demographic data. SPSS 20 software was used to analyze the collected data. Results: The study sample included 57 men and 155 women (73.1%). Examining the relationship between perceived social support and self-management revealed a strong correlation between them (r2 = 0.60, P < 0.001). The results of regression analysis showed that self-management in people with academic education was statistically significantly greater than in those without (b [Standard Error] = 6.83 [2.58], P = 0.009). Furthermore, the amount of perceived social support was increasing significantly for females in comparison to males (b [SE] = 6.04 [1.58], P = 0.03). Moreover, the mean of perceived social support was greater between married (b [SE] = 3.31 [1.56], P = 0.007) people and also between academic (b [SE] = 7.43 [3.56], P = 0.03) MS patients. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that social support was associated with self-management in MS patients. This understanding should be applied in clinical practice when targeting and designing education, support, and care for MS patients.
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Beliefs about the effects of smoking on corona virus disease 2019 and its impact on the intention to quit and smoking frequencies among university students smokers in Jakarta, Indonesia p. 7
Mochamad Iqbal Nurmansyah, Izza Suraya, Ridhwan Fauzi, Badra Al-Aufa
Introduction: Several scientific evidence showed that smoking can increase the severity and mortality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This indicates that the pandemic is the best time to reduce its frequency or stop the habit, but misinformation that smoking prevents infection has an effect on smokers' behavior. Therefore, this study aims to assess the beliefs about the effects of smoking on COVID-19 as well as to determine their relationship with smoking habits among university student smokers in Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: This study was carried out in three Universities in Jakarta with a total of 198 respondents, who were selected conveniently. Furthermore, independent variables were derived from the Health Belief Model theory, while the dependent variables include quit intention and smoking frequency. Chi-square and ordinal regression analyses were carried out to determine the association between the variables. Results: The belief that smoking increases the severity of COVID-19 as well as having the determination to stop the habit, had an effect on the respondents' quit intention. Moreover, perceived barriers, such as feeling anxious (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19–0.60) and being exposed to information that the habit prevents COVID-19 severity (AOR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.01–0.71) were protective factors against the decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked daily. Conclusion: Improving digital health literacy, campaigns to clarify the risk of cigarettes, and self-efficacy related to cessation are important efforts to prevent smoking behavior during a pandemic.
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Depression and associated factors among in-school adolescents in Nigeria p. 14
Ezioma Anne Alinnor, Chukwuma Ugochukwu Okeafor
Introduction: Depression is projected to become the leading cause of disability as well as the leading contributor to the global burden of disease by 2030. Depression in adolescents is a public health concern as it increases the risk of substance abuse, relationship difficulties, suicide, and poor academic performance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and its associated risk factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a school-based cross-sectional study involving 1428 adolescents aged 10–19 years in secondary schools in the Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Adolescents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data on sociodemographic and family structure were obtained using a self-administered pretested semi-structured questionnaire. The presence of depression was determined using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Adolescents with BDI scores of ≥18 were categorized as depressed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed at P < 0.05. Results: Of the 1428 adolescents recruited, 563 (39.4%) were males. The mean age was 14.30 ± 2.04 years. The prevalence of depression was 21.9% (n = 313). Significantly higher odds of depression were reported among females (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.447; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.107–1.891; P = 0.007), low socioeconomic status (AOR: 1.409; 95% CI: 1.064–1.865; P = 0.017), and family structures that were not monogamous (AOR: 1.586;95% CI: 1.152–2.183; P = 0.005). Conclusion: Depression is not uncommon among in-school adolescents in Nigeria. In addition to the inclusion of screening for depression in the school health program, measures to reduce the burden are advocated, especially among female adolescents and adolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds.
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Factors associated with early child development in Nepal – A further analysis of multiple indicator cluster survey 2019 p. 21
Sampurna Kakchapati, Saugat Pratap KC, Santosh Giri, Shreeman Sharma
Introduction: Information on child development is limited in Nepal, where a large number of children suffer from the negative consequences of poverty, nutritional deficiencies, and inadequate learning opportunities. The study aims to determine the proportion of children developmentally on track and its associated factors among 2870 children under 5 years using data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. Methods: We used bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression to determine the association among household and maternal variables and child characteristics with the Child Development Index. Results: The multivariate analysis showed that age, province, educational status, wealth index quintile, health insurance, stunting, and functional disability were associated with the Child Development Index (P < 0.05). The odds of child being developmentally on track at 4 years was more than two times (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7–2.37) than of 3 years. Literate mothers had higher odds (AOR = 1.56 [95% CI: 1.29–1.89]) of child being developmentally on track compared to illiterate mothers. The odds of child being developmentally on track in the richest quintile was more than three times (AOR = 3.43 [95% CI: 2.39–4.91]) than child of the poorest quintile. With regard to stunting, there were higher odds of children who were not stunted (AOR = 1.35 [95% CI: 1.12–1.64]) being developmentally on track. Children who lack functional difficulty were more than six times (AOR = 6.7 [95% CI: 3.2–14.02]) on being developmentally on track. Children having health insurance were higher odds (AOR = 1.81 [95% CI: 1.04–3.15] P = 0.034) on being developmentally on track. Conclusion: The study found different factors such as age, province, educational status, wealth index quintile, health insurance, stunting, and functional disability associated with the Child Development Index providing insights to establish specific interventions based on socioeconomic barriers of household and health outcomes of children for ensuring child development.
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Patient–physician communication in health centers: A qualitative study p. 30
Mehran Alijanzadeh, Mohammadreza Maleki, Hamid Pourasghari
Introduction: A good relationship between physician and patient is effective in improving public health. The present study aimed to identify the factors affecting proper patient–physician communication in health centers. Methods: To this end, an exploratory qualitative study was conducted in 2019. The interviews were performed purposefully, and 18 patients referred to health centers were interviewed with maximum variation. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using the approach of content analysis. Results: Data analysis revealed two main themes of human communication and health access. The theme of human communication consisted of four subthemes: physician's knowledge and experience, physician's behavior and ethics, comprehensive attention to the patient, and physician's discipline. Further, the theme of health access consisted of two subthemes: the physical condition of the center and the condition of the equipment. Conclusion: The identified components can be used to train medical students and evaluate the communication performance of doctors in health centers paying appropriate attention to these factors leading to patient satisfaction and, consequently, improving public health.
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Internet Gaming Disorder: An Interplay of Cognitive Psychopathology p. 36
Filzah Kakul, Sarah Javed
Introduction: Internet addiction is currently considered a worldwide problem, with a possible impact on mental health. Young adults are recognized to be at high risk of developing Internet gaming disorder (IGD). According to a recent clinical model, young adults with IGD may endorse a distinct set of maladaptive beliefs that underlie persistent and excessive engagement in Internet gaming activities. The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of problematic gaming beliefs and psychological distress in a sample of “Indian Young Adults” with and without IGD. Methods: The research is descriptive in nature, conducted during the month of April 2022–May 2022 on a sample of 306 young adults (185 males and 121 females) recruited from multiple universities. A Google form survey that included validated measures of IGDs, Internet gaming cognition, and psychological distress were distributed on various online platforms for collecting the data. Results: According to the findings, young adults with IGD report significantly higher maladaptive gaming beliefs (t = 16.199, P < 0.001) and psychological distress (depression - t = 12.11. P = < 0.001 and anxiety/stress - t = 10.95, P = < 0.001) than young adults without IGD. The size of observed effects was large for cognition (Cohen's d = 2.14), depression (Cohen's d = 2.14), and anxiety/stress (Cohen's d = 1.96). The sample also reported strong correlation between IGD symptoms and gaming cognitions (P = <0.001). Further hierarchical regression analysis revealed depression variables as a significant predictors in the final model (β = 0.212, P = 0.002, confidence interval [CI] = 0.219–0.944) and overvaluation (β = 0.196, P = 0.020, CI = 0.048–0.545), maladaptive rules (β = 0.334, P = 0.003, CI = 0.117–0.551), and gaming social acceptance (β = 0.272, P = 0.001, CI = 0.190–0.693) as the three strongest cognition predictors of IGD symptoms. Conclusion: These findings indicate that young adults with IGD have distinct problematic thoughts about gaming and highlight the importance of addressing these cognitions in therapeutic interventions for the disorder.
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