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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2021
Volume 4 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 85-127

Online since Monday, July 26, 2021

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

The psychological impact of COVID-19 on health-care workers in African Countries: A systematic review p. 85
Anthony A Olashore, Oluyemi O Akanni, Ayodele L Fela-Thomas, Kadimo Khutsafalo
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_32_21  
In Africa, a systematic appraisal of the associated pattern of psychiatric disorders (PDs) among health-care workers (HCWs) is lacking. We, therefore, aimed to ascertain the pattern of PDs and their associated risk factors among HCWs in Africa during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. We identified 12 studies for inclusion after searching four databases: Web of Science, PubMed, AJOL, and EBSCOhost for articles written in English from January 2020 to April 2021. Anxiety disorder with rates from 9.5% to 73.3% and depression, 12.5% to 71.9%, were the most reported PDs. Availability of protective gear and information regarding preventive measures reduced the risk of developing any PDs, while psychoactive substance use, history of chronic medical illness, low level of resilience, and low social support increased these risks. A considerable proportion of HCWs manifest various psychological problems such as their counterparts in other parts of the world. Multiple factors were also implicated as risk, albeit associations were not consistently established across the studies. There is a need to increase research capacity tailored to the HCW population's needs in the continent.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-associated perceived stress and anxiety among indian medical students: A cross-sectional study p. 98
Rishabh Sharma, Parveen Bansal, Manik Chhabra, Cherry Bansal, Malika Arora
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_9_21  
Introduction: The spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new public health concern that has shaken the whole world and possesses a challenge to the mental health of the public. This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the perceived stress, anxiety level, and mental health of medical students as well as to explore the knowledge of COVID-19 among Indian medical students. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among the undergraduate medical interns and postgraduate medical residents using the online data collection form. The form consisted of five domains (sociodemographic details, knowledge assessment, perceived stress assessment, generalized anxiety disorder-7 assessment, and assessment of the perceived level of change in social habits and personal hygiene related to COVID-19 outbreak). The statistical analysis of the responses was carried out by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: Two hundred participants filled the distributed survey, 61% (n = 122) were males. The mean knowledge score of 200 participants was 4.27 ± 1.45. The participant had a mean perceived stress score of 18.35 ± 6.28, and the females had a significantly higher perceived stress level than the male (P = 0.037). About 10% (n = 20) of the participants reported high perceived stress level (27–40), and moderate stress (score 14–26) was reported in 69% (n = 138) of the participants. However, only 21% (n = 42) of the participants reported low stress (0–13). While only moderate anxiety (score 10–14) was reported in 16% (n = 32) of the participant and 4% (n = 8) of the participants reported severe anxiety (score >14). Conclusion: There is an increased stress and anxiety in Indian medical students due to overburdened responsibilities and lack of adequate resources.
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Marital adjustment as a predictor of quality of life in infertile couples p. 105
Samereh Eghtedar, Elnaz Asghari, Fatemeh-Sara Aparnak, Zoleikha Asgarloo, Parinaz Rasti
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_10_21  
Introduction: Quality of life of couples may be affected by infertility. Information about their quality of life can be used for developing health promotion programs by the nurses. The purpose of this study was to predict the factors that affect the quality of life of infertile couples based on marital adjustment, factors related to infertility, and background characteristics. Methods: In this descriptive correlational study, 131 women and 79 men referred to an infertility center were recruited using a convenience method. Data were collected using the quality of life and Spiner's marital adjustment questionnaires. Regression analysis was used for the data analysis through the SPSS software version 16. Results: The means of the females and males' age were 35.74 ± 6.11 years and 32.45 ± 5.72 years, respectively. Of variables with a P < 0.1 that entered the regression analysis, marital adjustment (β = −0.444, P < 0.001), gender (β = 0.138, P < 0.023), and insurance (β = 0.199, P < 0.001) accounted for 78% of the observed variance in the quality of life of the infertile couples. Conclusion: The results revealed that fundamental interventions are needed to improve the quality of life of infertile couples. Providing the necessary training when couples go to the infertility clinic and improving insurance coverage for infertility treatment is recommended based on the results.
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Supportive systems needed for the functioning of people with traumatic brain injury: An exploratory study p. 110
Emmanuel Sarku, Emma Sethina Adjaottor, Frimpong-Manso Addo, Daniel Kwasi Ahorsu
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_13_21  
Introduction: People with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been found to have significant cognitive challenges which negatively impact their psychosocial life. This calls for efficient supportive systems and coping mechanisms to enable them to function in the society. This study, therefore, examined the (1) supportive systems that affect people with TBI and (2) essential coping mechanisms for psychosocial activities among people with TBI. Methods: A total of forty participants with a mean age of 35.30 (standard deviation = 11.90) years, mostly males (70%) and married (55%) were recruited for this cross-sectional study. They completed measures on TBI severity, coping strategies, social support, religious coping activities, and psychosocial activities. Results: There were significant interrelationships between coping strategies, social support, religious coping activities, psychosocial activities, and severity of TBI. Coping strategies, religious coping, and psychosocial activities were the supportive systems that affect people with TBI. Coping strategies was the only factor that affects the psychosocial activities of people with TBI. Conclusion: Based on these findings, different supportive systems may be needed for different functional abilities of people with TBI. Hence, clinicians may have to individualize assessment in order to offer bespoke support systems needed for improvement.
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Pain and depression among adult outpatients with osteoarthritis in Nigeria: A cross-sectional study p. 116
Chijioke Chimbo, Sunday O Oriji, Paul O Erohubie, Bawo O James, Ambrose O Lawani
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_15_21  
Introduction: Arthritis is a degenerative joint disease with many forms, but osteoarthritis is most common resulting from trauma or infection to the joint or aging. Depressive disorders often go undiagnosed especially in chronic physical illnesses like osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritic pain is associated with a high risk of depressive illness. This study evaluated the prevalence of major depression and its relationship with physical pain among patients with osteoarthritis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 134 adult outpatients, with osteoarthritis at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The demographic profile, subjective pain intensity, and diagnosis of major depression were obtained with a sociodemographic questionnaire, Visual Analog Pain Scale, and depressive module of Composite International Diagnostic Interview, respectively. Results: Thirty-seven (27.61%) and 40 (29.85%) participants had current and 12-month depressive disorder, respectively. A unit (year) increase in the illness duration was associated with a 68% increase in the likelihood of having depression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.68, P = 0.044), while the presence of comorbidity was the only independent correlate of 12-month depression among the participants (aOR 0.11, P = 0.031). Subjective pain severity had no independent correlation with depressive disorder. Conclusion: Major depression is prevalent among patients with osteoarthritis. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of depressive disorder, especially in the presence of medical comorbidities and longer duration of illness.
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A multicenter study on problematic pornography consumption: prevalence and correlates among undergraduate medical students p. 122
Bhavin Naranbhai Kadavala, Disha Alkeshbhai Vasavada, Parveen Kumar, Renish Bhupenderabhai Bhatt, Vishal Kanaiyalal Patel, Deepak Sachidanand Tiwari
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_18_21  
Introduction: Internet pornography use is a sexual behavior, and it comprises a variety of online sexual activities, including watching pornography, online pornography exchange, and engaging in sex chats. Due to rise in Internet access and technologies, online pornography and other type of repetitive behaviors have increased. The current study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of problematic pornography consumption among undergraduate medical students. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out at seven different centers of Gujarat from October 2020 to December 2020. Online structured questionnaire in two different parts: (1) Demographic details and usage pattern of pornography among students, (2) Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale was prepared and shared with all undergraduate students through designated faculty. Logistic regression analysis was used for problematic pornography consumption (as dependent variable) and other categorical variables as independent variables. Results: A total of 1926 participants completed the study. The prevalence of problematic pornography consumption among participants was 14.6% (95% confidence interval 12.4–16.1). Male participants and participants who are in a romantic relationship have higher problematic pornography consumption. Participants' gender (odds ratio OR = 3.562), relationship status (OR = 1.636), weekly (OR = 1.749), and daily (OR = 1.733) pornography consumption emerged as statistically significant with the problematic pornography consumption from the logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Problematic pornography consumption is more prevalent among male under graduate medical students than females. It is important to educate the students about the potential harmful adverse effects of pornography and to develop a positive attitude toward sex.
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