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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2022
Volume 5 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 93-145

Online since Tuesday, August 9, 2022

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

A theory-based educational intervention to promote behavior change and physical activity participation in middle-aged women: A randomized controlled trial p. 93
Hamid Joveini, Zeinab Malaijerdi, Nader Sharifi, Rohollah Borghabani, Masoumeh Hashemian
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_35_22  
Introduction: Promoting physical activity (PA) behavior by education can help people to create and maintain an active lifestyle until old age. This study aimed to design and evaluate a theory-based educational intervention to promote behavior change and PA in middle-aged women. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 73 middle-aged women in Jovein, Iran, from January to November 2018. A researcher-made questionnaire based on the volition phase constructs of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model was used. Randomly, one health base and one health house were assigned to the intervention group and one health base and one health house were assigned to the control group, and the participants were randomly selected from these centers. Both the groups completed the questionnaires before, immediately after, and 3 months after the educational intervention. The educational intervention was held in three 60-min sessions among three groups of approximately 17 participants. PA maintenance was measured 6 months after the intervention. Results: Immediately and 3 months after the intervention, the mean scores of all the volition phase constructs significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Three and 6 months after the intervention, the number of people who had at least 150 min of moderate PA per week was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The educational intervention based on the volition phase constructs of the HAPA increased PA intention and facilitated the transition from an inactive lifestyle to an active lifestyle among middle-aged women.
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Mental stress and well-being among low-income older adults during COVID-19 pandemic p. 101
Paolo Miguel Manalang Vicerra
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_110_22  
Introduction: Insecurities with food and economic resources, housing discontent, and mental stress were experienced by vulnerable populations, especially older adults, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This study examined the association of poverty based on resource scarcity with life satisfaction as an indicator of well-being during the COVID-19 outbreak in Thailand. It also tested the mediating effect of mental stress. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from the 2021 Survey on Housing and Support Services for Poor Older Adults which involved low-income Thais aged at least 55 years. On testing for multigroup differences, the model was applied separately to urban and rural samples. Results: Findings from the urban sample indicated that resource scarcity was associated with life satisfaction based on the direct (β = 0.686, P < 0.01), indirect (β = 0.105, P < 0.05), and total effects (β = 0.790, P < 0.001). Mental stress (β = 0.304, P < 0.05) was also associated with life satisfaction. For the rural sample, resource scarcity was associated with life satisfaction (β = 0.159, P < 0.05) only when mental stress acted as a mediator. Conclusion: This theme is important to better understand the well-being status of older people in an aging society with a developing economy. Recognizing that the physical and policy environment for urban and rural residences have an influence on the mental health and well-being of this age group can contribute to addressing their needs in times of social shocks like the COVID-19 pandemic.
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“I believe in science and in all vaccines:” Older adult and the intention for a vaccine against COVID-19 p. 108
Marcelo de Maio Nascimento, Allysson Nathan Galvão Nunes, Luciano Juchem
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_17_22  
Introduction: To investigate the intention of older Brazilian adults to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, to find out their perception of the older adults' fragility to the virus, and to know their opinion on the progress of the national immunization plan against COVID-19. Methods: An exploratory qualitative study was carried out through semi-structured telephone calls with 32 participants (aged 60–89), between February and March 2021. Data were analyzed thematically, emerging three major themes. Results: Most participants expressed concern about the vulnerability of their immune system to the coronavirus, and dissatisfaction with the organization of the national immunization plan. Strong criticism was leveled at the leadership of the President of the Republic due to his resistance to vaccination and encouraging the use of hydroxychloroquine. Conclusion: The vast majority of respondents reported an intention to receive the vaccine. The short time for the production of vaccines generated distrust with its effectiveness. All expressed dissatisfaction with the organization of the national immunization plan, and agreed that after the pandemic, their lives and the world will no longer be as before.
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Aggression, self-esteem, and resilience among children: A school-based cross-sectional study from central India p. 115
Yachana Choudhary, Mohan Kumar, Rajendra Mahore, GW Lanke, Manju Dubey
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_165_21  
Introduction: Adolescence as a life stage is associated with physical and psychological changes with an interplay of biological, social, and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of aggression among children and the factors associated with aggression. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in schools of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, between 2017 and 2019 among higher and higher secondary class children. All children from high and higher secondary classes were included, resulting in a sample of 192. Information on sociodemographic, family, psychosocial, lifestyle, addiction factors, aggression (Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire), self-esteem (Rosenberg self-esteem scale), and resilience (Nicholson McBride Resilience Questionnaire) were obtained. Results: The prevalence of aggression among children from Classes 9th to 12th was 49.5%; physical aggression was 42.7%, verbal aggression was 31.8%, anger was 44.3%, and hostility was 44.8%. Almost half (44.3%) of the children had self-esteem and only 1.6% of children had an established level of resilience. Of the sociodemographic factors considered, type of school, gender, parents' education; of the family factors considered, family members taking alcohol/drugs, parents having frequent arguments, parents hitting children and using abusive language; of the psychosocial, lifestyle and addiction factors considered, feeling neglected, grade, watching TV and practice of reading books were significantly associated with the presence of aggression in children (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall findings suggest the need for strengthening life skills education, positive immediate environment, coping at the individual level, social intelligence, and cautious approach toward boosting self-esteem.
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Determinants of regional prevalence and variations in handwashing practices among households in Bangladesh: An application of generalized mixed-effects model p. 122
Md Ismail Hossain, Md Jakaria Habib, Iqramul Haq, Maliha Afroj Zinnia, Samia Kabir, Ahmed Abdus Saleh Saleheen, Md Mohibul Alam, Md Rifat Hasan, Ashis Talukder
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_48_22  
Introduction: Handwashing practice is an effective way to minimize severe infectious diseases such as COVID-19, diarrhea, and pneumonia. The study aimed to explore the prevalence of handwashing behavior and associated determinants in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Methods: The research was performed using cross-sectional survey data from the 2019 Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, and 61,242 household members were the sample for this study. The Chi-square test was applied for the bivariate analysis. A generalized linear mixed-effects model was used to identify the risk factors of practicing handwashing in both urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. Results: Only 65% of the country's households had access to handwashing facilities (place, water, and materials). While urban dwellers were more likely to wash their hands, rural dwellers were only 63% likely to do so. The level of education of household heads, wealth status, division, number of family members, sanitation facilities, and water source were the key factors associated with handwashing behavior. This study revealed that the odds were significantly lower among illiterate respondents compared to those with secondary and above-secondary education in both areas of Bangladesh, and a positive association was found between wealth status and handwashing behavior practiced in both urban and rural areas. In this study, the size of the family was statistically significant for both rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Conclusion: Handwashing is the most prominent consideration for controlling COVID-19. Policymakers are striving to improve handwashing facilities by increasing awareness-raising programs, especially among rural residents of Bangladesh.
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Brief resilience interventions for mental health among college students: Randomized controlled trial p. 131
Shabnam Kadian, Jaison Joseph, Sat Pal, Rajeshwari Devi
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_28_22  
Introduction: The resilience interventions have the potential to enhance the protective factors to prevent mental health problems in young adolescents. The present study evaluated the feasibility of brief resilience interventions in a sample of college students. Methods: The present randomized controlled study was conducted among 220 college students and the study protocol was registered in the Clinical Trials Registry of India (Ref.No.CTRI/2021/04/032716). The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: (i) A brief resilience intervention program group and (ii) a resilience self-help pamphlet group. The brief resilience intervention program is based on positive psychology and consists of two sessions, delivered on a 2-week interval period. The outcome measures were changes in the scores of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS), Perceived Stress Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-4. Results: The mean age of the participants was 19.31 years (standard deviation – 1.17) and both the study groups were comparable during baseline (P > 0.05). At the 1-month follow-up, there was a slight increase in the mean BRCS scores of the brief resilience intervention group (15.57 vs. 15.87) as compared to the resilience self-help pamphlet group (16.15 vs. 15.79). There was no evidence that brief resilience intervention was superior to the self-help booklet in any of the outcome measures (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Brief resilience interventions have the potential to promote resilience and coping skills among college-going students in this setting. The integration of brief resilience interventions among college-based cohorts would appear to be an appropriate strategy for building protective factors to bolster resilience.
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The effect of resilience indicators on the job stress level among nurses: A predictor study p. 138
Payam Rashnuodi, Maryam Nourollahi-Darabad, Davood Afshari, Gholam Abbas Shirali, Arman Amiri, Ehsan Rotkhali, Zohreh Shabgard
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_4_22  
Introduction: Resilience is one of the competencies that enable nurses to adapt to stressful risk factors at work and demonstrate a healthy and stable psychological performance. The present study aimed to investigate the predictive role of resilience on job stress among Iranian nurses. Methods: The current cross-sectional study was conducted in Ahvaz, Iran, with participation of 200 nurses in May 2019. Participants were recruited via stratified random sampling. The resilience indicators and job stress data were collected by the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale and OSIPOW Job Stress Questionnaire. Results: The results showed a significant negative correlation between resilience and job stress (r = −0.824, P < 0.05). Similarly, a significant linear regression existed between job stress and resilience (β = −0.824, P < 0.05) in such a way that resilience predicted 67.9% of the job stress variance in the participants (R2 = 0.679). In addition, it was revealed that the multi-aspect model could significantly predict job stress based on linear resilience indicators (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that resilience indicators have a significant relationship with job stress, and this relationship can be used to predict changes in job stress based on resilience. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that resilience improvement programs should be developed and implemented for nurses.
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