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The effects of internet gaming and social media use on physical activity, sleep, quality of life, and academic performance among university students in Hong Kong: A preliminary study
Carrie Kwok, Pui Yu Leung, Ka Ying Poon, Xavier C. C. Fung
January-March 2021, 4(1):36-44
Introduction: With the rapid increase in the prevalence of the Internet and/or smartphone usage worldwide in the last decade, engagement in internet gaming and social media may be problematic and may lead to negative consequences on mental and physical health among young adults. The main objectives of the present study are (1) to investigate how internet gaming and social media impact on physical activity, sleep quality, quality of life (QoL), and academic performance of university students in Hong Kong and (2) to investigate how physical activity and sleep associate with QoL and academic performance of university students in Hong Kong. Methods: This study employed a longitudinal design with 3-month duration. Hong Kong university students (n = 15; 4 males; mean age = 26.87 years) completed the questionnaires, wore a device to measure their physical activity and sleep, provided screen time data showing the time usage of applications on gaming and social media categories, and academic transcript for the study. Results: Internet gaming was negatively correlated with physical activity and psychological QoL (rs = −0.49 to −0.62); social media use was negatively correlated with physical activity and sleep quality (rs = −0.48 to −0.63); internet gaming and smartphone addiction were negatively correlated with academic performance (rs = −0.51 to −0.53); physical activity was positively correlated with psychological QoL (rs = 0.49). Conclusion: The results emphasized that internet gaming and smartphone addiction tend to have negative impact on physical activity, psychological QoL, sleep, and academic performance. The findings may be regarded as a direction for health-care providers to develop and evaluate the intervention to treat the specific type of internet/smartphone overuse.
  52,484 2,437 36
Impact of COVID-19-related fear and anxiety on job attributes: A systematic review
Nilofar Rajabimajd, Zainab Alimoradi, Mark D Griffiths
April-June 2021, 4(2):51-55
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had different effects on different occupations. The present study was designed to systematically review the available evidence to investigate the pandemic on occupational effects. The academic databases of Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, Science Direct, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched systematically between December 2019 and February 2021. COVID-19-related fear, concern, worry, anxiety, and stress in combination with job-related MeSH terms were used to search the databases. The methodological quality of included papers was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale checklist. To synthesize data, a qualitative synthesis of findings was performed due to the small number of included studies (n = 4) and the heterogeneity of the assessed outcomes. Four studies were included in the final analysis. All four studies were cross-sectional, collected the data online, and comprised 1654 participants from four different countries. Fear of COVID-19 was associated with increased future career anxiety, perceived job insecurity, organizational and professional turnover intentions, and decreased job satisfaction. COVID-19 Anxiety Syndrome was associated with scores on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. As so few studies have been conducted, there are no conclusive findings. More studies using valid and reliable measures to assess fear/anxiety related to COVID-19 and its' association with job attributes are needed. It is also recommended that these associations are examined in variety of different jobs.
  12,385 993 72
The psychological impact of COVID-19 on health-care workers in African Countries: A systematic review
Anthony A Olashore, Oluyemi O Akanni, Ayodele L Fela-Thomas, Kadimo Khutsafalo
July-September 2021, 4(3):85-97
In Africa, a systematic appraisal of the associated pattern of psychiatric disorders (PDs) among health-care workers (HCWs) is lacking. We, therefore, aimed to ascertain the pattern of PDs and their associated risk factors among HCWs in Africa during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. We identified 12 studies for inclusion after searching four databases: Web of Science, PubMed, AJOL, and EBSCOhost for articles written in English from January 2020 to April 2021. Anxiety disorder with rates from 9.5% to 73.3% and depression, 12.5% to 71.9%, were the most reported PDs. Availability of protective gear and information regarding preventive measures reduced the risk of developing any PDs, while psychoactive substance use, history of chronic medical illness, low level of resilience, and low social support increased these risks. A considerable proportion of HCWs manifest various psychological problems such as their counterparts in other parts of the world. Multiple factors were also implicated as risk, albeit associations were not consistently established across the studies. There is a need to increase research capacity tailored to the HCW population's needs in the continent.
  11,162 851 69
Domestic and gender-Based violence: Pakistan scenario amidst COVID-19
Adnan Ashraf, Iftikhar Ali, Faseeh Ullah
January-March 2021, 4(1):47-50
  8,568 684 11
“Psychological consequences and coping strategies of patients undergoing treatment for COVID-19 at a tertiary care hospital”: A qualitative study
Satyajeet Tulshidas Patil, Manjiri Chaitanya Datar, Jyoti Vittaldas Shetty, Nilesh Mahadeo Naphade
April-June 2021, 4(2):62-68
Introduction: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global threat and has affected physical as well as mental health adversely. There had been an exponential rise in COVID-19 cases in India from May to October 2020. Isolation, hospitalization, and stigmatization were significant issues in COVID-19 crisis. The literature is sparse on the mental health effects on hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to describe the psychological consequences and coping strategies of COVID-19 patients admitted to tertiary health-care hospital. The objectives were (1) to assess the psychological consequences in COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital, (2) to assess the coping strategies in these COVID-19 patients, and (3) to find correlations of sociodemographic characteristics, psychological consequences, and coping strategies of these COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional qualitative study, 100 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection participated. In-depth interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaire. The narratives were coded into themes and correlations of variables generated were done using Chi-square test. Results: The most common themes about the psychological state of patients were loneliness and isolation (56%), adjustment issues in the hospital (54%), and concerns about family members (32%). Patients who had family members also suffering from COVID-19 illness (24%) had more concerns about their health (Chi-square 25.209, P = 0.00) and had worries of their future (Chi-square 7.023, P = 0.008). Females had more worries about family members (Chi-square 16.295, P = 0.00) and had more concerns about their own health (Chi-square 5.71, P = 0.01). The most common coping strategies used by patients were digital communication with family members (82%), distraction (58%), and communicating with other co-patients (30%) to deal with their psychological distress. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection leads to psychological distress due to multiple factors. Timely interventions with support for effective coping mechanisms can help in alleviating the distress.
  8,012 560 20
Using occupational therapy process addressing sleep-related problems in neurorehabilitation: A cross-sectional modeling study
Chia-Wei Fan, Kathryn Drumheller
October-December 2021, 4(4):149-155
Introduction: Sleep is one of the main occupations defined in the occupational therapy (OT) Practice Framework-4. Methods: A survey link was sent to registered OT practitioners in Florida (N = 14,978) in September 2019 through E-mail addresses obtained from the Florida Department of Health website. A convenience sample of 213 OT practitioners responded; the majority were female (87%), with 56% reporting over 10 years of experience treating patients with neurological disorders. The person-environment-occupation-performance (PEOP) OT process provided the guiding framework for the proposed model. Spearman's rho correlation coefficients determined the correlations between the variables of interest. Regression coefficients attained through hierarchical ordinal logistic regression estimated the log odds between the variables. Results: Therapists who wrote more sleep-oriented goals were predicted to use a greater variety of sleep-related assessments (odds ratio [OR] = 1.256; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.171–1.347). Furthermore, a greater repertoire of sleep interventions was predicted when more types of sleep assessments were utilized (OR = 2.134 (95% CI = 1.750–2.602); more clients expressed sleep-related concerns to the OT practitioners (OR = 1.207; 95% CI = 1.044–1.395); and when the OT practitioners worked in a greater number of clinical settings (OR = 1.308; 95% CI = 1.113–1.539). Conclusion: The findings confirmed that the PEOP model might guide the OT service process when addressing sleep-related problems in neurorehabilitation. However, variations between settings and environmental facilitators/barriers may also play a role in sleep-related interventions.
  7,548 590 -
A study of correlates of social networking site addiction among the undergraduate health professionals
Vishal Kanaiyalal Patel, Pradhyuman Chaudhary, Parveen Kumar, Disha Alkeshbhai Vasavada, Deepak Sachidanand Tiwari
January-March 2021, 4(1):30-35
Introduction: Social networking sites (SNSs) are popular, and there is a concern regarding its addiction among the young adults. The present study aimed to find the correlates of SNS addiction among the undergraduate health professionals. Methods: This was a 6-month, cross-sectional, and observational study of 730 undergraduate health professionals of government medical, dental, and physiotherapy colleges of Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Participants were selected using stratified random sampling from the medical, dental, and physiotherapy government colleges. The Social Media Disorder Scale was used to detect the SNS addiction, the Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) Scale was used to find the severity of FOMO, the Perceived Stress Scale was used to detect the severity of stress, and the Insomnia Severity Index was used to detect the severity of insomnia in health professionals. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and multiple regression analysis were used for analysis of data. Results: The prevalence rate of SNS addiction was 15.02% among the undergraduate health professionals. Participants with addiction were using SNS widely (hostel, home, college, and leisure hours), spent more time and money on Internet, started SNS use before 5 years, and reported FOMO. They also reported moderate-to-severe stress and insomnia. Conclusion: SNS addiction is prevalent in undergraduate health professionals. High level of FOMO, perceived stress, and insomnia among the health professionals are important correlates with SNS addiction.
  6,517 490 12
Leisure activity engagement as a predictor for quality of life in community-Dwelling older adults
Valiollah Marufkhani, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Monirsadat Mirzadeh, Kelly-Ann Allen, Seyedeh Ameneh Motalebi
January-March 2021, 4(1):2-7
Introduction: Participation in leisure activities is greatly associated with the health and well-being of older adults. This study investigated the role of leisure activities in predicting the quality of life of community-dwelling older adults. Methods: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, 141 older adults were selected by cluster sampling method from public places. Data were collected through demographic characteristics, leisure time activities, and Lipad QoL questionnaires. The questionnaires were completed through face-to-face interviews. A regression model was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of older adult participants was 70.36 years (standard deviation = 8.99; range: 60–100 years) and 63.8% were male. The results also showed a low level of leisure time engagement and high level of QoL among older adults. The results of the current study indicated that education level and leisure time activity engagement were associated with a better QoL. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, engagement in leisure activities is related to improvements in the QoL of community-dwelling older adults. It is recommended that policymakers and families plan for and implement leisure time activities for older adults.
  6,351 386 1
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-associated perceived stress and anxiety among indian medical students: A cross-sectional study
Rishabh Sharma, Parveen Bansal, Manik Chhabra, Cherry Bansal, Malika Arora
July-September 2021, 4(3):98-104
Introduction: The spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new public health concern that has shaken the whole world and possesses a challenge to the mental health of the public. This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the perceived stress, anxiety level, and mental health of medical students as well as to explore the knowledge of COVID-19 among Indian medical students. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among the undergraduate medical interns and postgraduate medical residents using the online data collection form. The form consisted of five domains (sociodemographic details, knowledge assessment, perceived stress assessment, generalized anxiety disorder-7 assessment, and assessment of the perceived level of change in social habits and personal hygiene related to COVID-19 outbreak). The statistical analysis of the responses was carried out by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: Two hundred participants filled the distributed survey, 61% (n = 122) were males. The mean knowledge score of 200 participants was 4.27 ± 1.45. The participant had a mean perceived stress score of 18.35 ± 6.28, and the females had a significantly higher perceived stress level than the male (P = 0.037). About 10% (n = 20) of the participants reported high perceived stress level (27–40), and moderate stress (score 14–26) was reported in 69% (n = 138) of the participants. However, only 21% (n = 42) of the participants reported low stress (0–13). While only moderate anxiety (score 10–14) was reported in 16% (n = 32) of the participant and 4% (n = 8) of the participants reported severe anxiety (score >14). Conclusion: There is an increased stress and anxiety in Indian medical students due to overburdened responsibilities and lack of adequate resources.
  6,060 482 38
Comparison of the performance of machine learning-based algorithms for predicting depression and anxiety among University Students in Bangladesh: A result of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic
Md Iqbal Hossain Nayan, M Sheikh Giash Uddin, Md Ismail Hossain, Md Mohibul Alam, Maliha Afroj Zinnia, Iqramul Haq, Md Moshiur Rahman, Rejwana Ria, Md Injamul Haq Methun
April-June 2022, 5(2):75-84
Introduction: The purpose of this research was to predict mental illness among university students using various machine learning (ML) algorithms. Methods: A structured questionnaire-based online survey was conducted on 2121 university students (private and public) living in Bangladesh. After obtaining informed consent, the participants completed a web-based survey examining sociodemographic variables and behavioral tests (including the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment-7 scale). This study applied six well-known ML algorithms, namely logistic regression, random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), linear discriminate analysis, K-nearest neighbors, Naïve Bayes, and which were used to predict mental illness among university students from Dhaka city in Bangladesh. Results: Of the 2121 eligible respondents, 45% were male and 55% were female, and approximately 76.9% were 21–25 years old. The prevalence of severe depression and severe anxiety was higher for women than for men. Based on various performance parameters, the results of the accuracy assessment showed that RF outperformed other models for the prediction of depression (89% accuracy), while SVM provided the best result than other models for the prediction of anxiety (91.49% accuracy). Conclusion: Based on these findings, we recommend that the RF algorithm and the SVM algorithm were more moderate than any other ML algorithm used in this study to predict the mental health status of university students in Bangladesh (depression and anxiety, respectively). Finally, this study proposes to apply RF and SVM classification when the prediction of mental illness status is the core interest.
  6,062 442 -
Individual characteristics and demographics associated with mask wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States
Echu Liu, Samantha Arledge
January-March 2022, 5(1):3-9
Introduction: Many scientific studies provide evidence of mask wearing as an effective strategy to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus. However, US citizens do not adhere to this prevention practice universally. Although past studies have shown disparities in mask wearing by age, gender, ethnicity, and location, the literature lacks a work that uses large-scale national survey data to understand the mask-wearing resistors' characteristics and demographics. This study's purpose is to fill this gap. Methods: We obtained this study's data from the COVID-19 Impact Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago. This survey aims at generating national and regional statistics by surveying representative regional and national samples in three time periods: April 20–26, 2020, May 4–10, 2020, and June 1–8, 2020. Data for our analysis are from the public-use files of these three waves. We performed logistic regressions to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of not wearing masks for several personal characteristics and demographics. Results: Our results suggest that younger (average ARR = 1.66) and lower-income (average ARR = 1.51) adults are more likely not to wear a face mask to prevent the coronavirus spread. On the other hand, unhealthy (average ARR = 0.81), female (average ARR = 0.68), and minority (average ARR = 0.65) adults are less likely not to wear a mask. Furthermore, residents in the Northeast region (average ARR = 0.34) and urban residents (average ARR = 0.54) are less likely not to wear a face mask. Conclusion: Mask-wearing behavior differs by age, income, health status, gender, race, region, and geographical residence in the US.
  5,693 441 -
Problematic internet use and its association with anxiety among undergraduate students
Lokesh Kumar Ranjan, Pramod R Gupta, Mayank Srivastava, Nilesh Maruti Gujar
October-December 2021, 4(4):137-141
Introduction: The Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially the lives of adolescents and youth. With the growth of Internet users, there is also a growing concern about whether the use of the Internet is excessive and if so, whether it amounts to addiction or not. The present study aimed to find the Internet addiction and anxiety effects among undergraduate students. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among undergraduate students of Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg and Yugantar Institute of Technology and Management, Rajnandgoan, Chhattisgarh selected using purposive sampling. The total enumeration method was obtained to select students. A total of 854 students were selected for the study. Students were assessed with sociodemographic datasheet, The Internet addiction test, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Results: About 4.3% of the undergraduate students reported severe Internet addiction, 7.7% had moderate-to-severe level of anxiety. Internet addiction was found to have significant positive correlation with overall anxiety, psychic anxiety, and somatic anxiety symptoms. In regression analysis, anxiety contributes significantly to the prediction of Internet addiction among undergraduate students. Conclusion: Students are suffering from stress, anxiety, and depression may have a tendency to use the Internet excessively to relieve low mood, insomnia, fearfulness, feelings of guilt, and hopelessness.
  5,563 568 -
Evaluation of perceived social stigma and burnout, among health-care workers working in covid-19 designated hospital of India: A cross-sectional study
Bhumika Rajendrakumar Patel, Bhumi G Khanpara, Prakash I Mehta, Kishan D Patel, Nidhi P Marvania
October-December 2021, 4(4):156-162
Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has notably changed the working and community environment for health-care workers (HCWs) leading to burnout and feeling of being stigmatized by the community due to their work. This study aims at assessing the prevalence of burnout, perceived social stigma, and their demographic and work-related predictors. Methods: A cross-sectional study using Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and perceived stigma scale was carried out among 348 HCWs in COVID-19 designated hospital at Ahmedabad about 6 months after the onset of the outbreak in September 2020. The prevalence of burnout was assessed in two dimensions: disengagement and exhaustion. Severity of each was measured on low, moderate, and high levels. Results: Total 348 HCWs participated in study with a mean age of 28.05 ± 6.75 years. Two hundred and sixty-five (76.15%) HCWs experienced burnout and 200 (57.47%) high levels of perceived stigma. The level of burnout was measured on three severities. Factors which predict high burnout are female gender, lower education, unmarried status, living in a nuclear family, and high perceived stigma. Work characteristics such as duty hours, days of working, monthly income, and work experience does not predict burnout. Intern doctors had high burnout (87.25%, χ2 = 28.067, P < 0.001) while nurses had high perceived stigma (70.97%, χ2 = 14.307, P < 0.05). Perceived stigma is positively correlated with burnout (r = 0.26, P < 0.001) with its both components, disengagement (r = 0.19, P < 0.001) and exhaustion (r = 0.30, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Burnout and stigmatization are prevalent among HCWs. Psychological interventions needed to reduce their burden and improve quality care during pandemic.
  5,686 408 -
Surfing over masked distress: Internet addiction and psychological well-being among a population of medical students
Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole, Adetunji Obadeji, Mobolaji Usman Dada
April-June 2021, 4(2):56-61
Introduction: The Internet has become an integral part of our lives and tool for social interaction and communication and it is becoming worrisome; Internet use among students is assuming a dimension of profound preoccupation over other activities of daily living. Internet addiction (IA) may raise risk for sleep problem, and contribute to the development of some psychiatric disorders and worsening mental health. The aim of this study was to study the interrelationship between IA and psychological well-being of medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Ekiti State University College of Medicine among both preclinical and clinical medical students. The study population was the entire medical students. A total of 129 study participants (86 clinical and 43 preclinical students) were purposively enrolled, 83 males and 46 females. Data were collected from the students using a questionnaire that comprised four components: (i) Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, (ii) Young IA Test (YIAT), (iii) World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and (iv) Insomnia Severity Index. Results: About half (51.9%) of the students who engaged the Internet dwelled on social media. Moreover, the least reason for using the Internet was for their academic assignments. Twenty-two (17.1%) of the participants scored below the minimum score for addiction on YIAT. This study revealed a statistically insignificant negative correlation between the pairs of IA score and mental well-being (r = −121, P = 0.198) and alcohol use and mental well-being (r = −0.10, P = 0.279). There existed a statistically significant positive correlation between IA and insomnia (r = 0.320, P = 0.000) and IA and alcohol use (r = 0.428, P = 0.000). There was an insignificant positive relationship between alcohol use and insomnia (r = 0.072, P = 0.414). Conclusion: IA and its associated problems among students would require earnest intervention to curb problematic use in order to attain good mental well-being.
  5,247 454 13
A multicenter study on problematic pornography consumption: prevalence and correlates among undergraduate medical students
Bhavin Naranbhai Kadavala, Disha Alkeshbhai Vasavada, Parveen Kumar, Renish Bhupenderabhai Bhatt, Vishal Kanaiyalal Patel, Deepak Sachidanand Tiwari
July-September 2021, 4(3):122-127
Introduction: Internet pornography use is a sexual behavior, and it comprises a variety of online sexual activities, including watching pornography, online pornography exchange, and engaging in sex chats. Due to rise in Internet access and technologies, online pornography and other type of repetitive behaviors have increased. The current study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of problematic pornography consumption among undergraduate medical students. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out at seven different centers of Gujarat from October 2020 to December 2020. Online structured questionnaire in two different parts: (1) Demographic details and usage pattern of pornography among students, (2) Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale was prepared and shared with all undergraduate students through designated faculty. Logistic regression analysis was used for problematic pornography consumption (as dependent variable) and other categorical variables as independent variables. Results: A total of 1926 participants completed the study. The prevalence of problematic pornography consumption among participants was 14.6% (95% confidence interval 12.4–16.1). Male participants and participants who are in a romantic relationship have higher problematic pornography consumption. Participants' gender (odds ratio OR = 3.562), relationship status (OR = 1.636), weekly (OR = 1.749), and daily (OR = 1.733) pornography consumption emerged as statistically significant with the problematic pornography consumption from the logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Problematic pornography consumption is more prevalent among male under graduate medical students than females. It is important to educate the students about the potential harmful adverse effects of pornography and to develop a positive attitude toward sex.
  5,177 300 3
Neuropsychological correlates of community function among major depressive disorder outpatients without comorbidity in Hong Kong: An exploratory cross-Sectional study
Daniel Kwasi Ahorsu, Ken Chung, Ho Hon Wong, Michael Gar Chung Yiu, Yat Fung Mok, Ka Shun Lei, Hector W. H. Tsang
January-March 2021, 4(1):8-14
Introduction: This exploratory cross-sectional study examined the effect of depression on neuropsychological and community function among major depressive disorder (MDD) outpatients without comorbidity in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). Methods: Sixty-nine participants (23 for each group) participated in the study. They were assessed on psychological, neuropsychological function, and community function skills. Results: The results revealed that first episode MDD and recurrent episodes MDD outpatients still have a significantly higher level of depression, impaired mental state, and executive function and worse community function compared with HCs. Intervariable relationships analysis revealed qualitative differences between the three groups. Conclusion: The study provides preliminary evidence that MDD outpatients may need more targeted cognitive and psychosocial interventions to improve their executive and community function skills. Larger-scale studies to increase the validity and generalizability of the pilot data are suggested.
  5,152 316 -
A comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy received by patients with major depressive disorder following traumatic brain injury for emotional status and quality of life of their caregivers: A randomized controlled trial
Ali Faghihi, Zahra Zanjani, Abdollah Omidi, Esmaeil Fakharian
January-March 2022, 5(1):24-32
Introduction: Caregivers of individuals who sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience psychological problems that are linked to emotional status of their injured relatives. This study intends to compare the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) received by depressed TBI survivors on their caregivers. Methods: This was a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial conducted between September 2018 and June 2019 at a teaching hospital in Iran. Participants were the 20–60-year-old persons who provide care to TBI survivors for 1–4 years. The survivors were randomized to receive either CBT (n = 24) or ACT (n = 24), or to stay on the waiting list (WL, n = 24). The family caregivers completed Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (physical, SF12-PCS; mental, SF12-MCS) before, after, and 3 months following the treatments. Results: All caregivers were analyzed (completers = 83.33%). Between-group differences were not significant (Ps > 0.5; small effect sizes) except at follow-up, where the differences on DASS21-Depression (P < 0.05; Glass's Δ = −0.635; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.729, 0.296) and SF12-MCS (P < 0.05; Glass's Δ = 0.751; 95% CI: −0.36, 0.807) were significant between caregivers of CBT recipients and WL. Moreover, a medium effect size on SF12-PCS (P > 0.5; Glass's Δ = 0.538; 95% CI: −0.416, 0.731) and SF12-MCS (P > 0.05; Glass's Δ = 0.507; 95% CI: −0.425, 0.772) was observed between caregivers of ACT recipients and WL at follow-up. Conclusion: Treating depression in TBI survivors can affect psychological status of their family caregivers. CBT received by TBI survivors is effective for improving caregivers' depression and mental quality of life.
  4,848 519 -
Willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 might be systematically underestimated
Marc Oliver Rieger
April-June 2021, 4(2):81-83
Estimations of the willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 are important to plan the vaccination process and also to coordinate efforts to reach herd immunity.Aims and Objectives: In this article, we test standard measures of vaccination willingness against systematic biases caused by misunderstandings and lack of information. We use a survey among 730 persons living in Germany at the start of the official vaccination program. We elicit willingness to vaccinate first in a standard form, and then again after clarifications and after providing additional information. We find that a substantial number of persons who state initially that they do not want to get vaccinated does so simply because they want to let people with higher risk be vaccinated first. Appropriately rephrasing the question increases the willingness by around 5 percentage points. Information about herd immunity increases the willingness by additional 7%, confirming previous findings. Standard survey-based estimates of vaccination willingness might underestimate the real number of persons who want to get a vaccination. This number can be increased even further by simply providing appropriate information on herd immunity. In our sample this increased vaccination willingness from 71.4% to 83.6%.
  5,043 317 19
A preliminary study of self-reported childhood sexual abuse among college students from southern India
Rajesh Duraisamy Rathinam, Abhishek Singh, Vikas Gupta, Rajarajan Ramalingam, LD Darshini
April-June 2021, 4(2):74-80
Introduction: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is truly a multidimensional issue having long-lasting effect on subject's physical and psychological health. The study was conducted with an aim to study various aspects of self-reported childhood sexual abuse in a sample of students from South India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out during July to September 2018 among 399 students of two colleges located at Puducherry using a self-administered questionnaire. The desired sample size was calculated considering the proportion of college students suffered from childhood sexual abuse as 53.2%. In each college, the line listing of students from 1st year to final year was done and simple random sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. The study was initiated after obtaining institutional ethical approval, and every student was ensured of complete confidentiality and privacy. Results: Of total 399 students, 130 (32.7%) students reported experiencing one or other form of CSA. Majority (40.0%) did not inform or share the instance of CSA to anyone. Fear of negative consequences (48.1%) and feelings of guilt (32.7%) were two top most factors that made them not to inform such abuse to their family members. Conclusion: Approximately one-third of students reported an incident of sexual abuse at least once in his/her life in Puducherry; thus, roots of CSA are deep in the society in which we live.
  4,878 310 1
The role of social capital in the implementation of social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic
Mehran Alijanzadeh, Tooraj Harati
January-March 2021, 4(1):45-46
  4,734 414 11
Health-related quality of life in adults with metabolic syndrome: Qazvin metabolic disease study, Iran
Farnoosh Rashvand, Azam Ghorbani, Neda Esmailzadehha
April-June 2021, 4(2):69-73
Introduction: As components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity, hypertension, and diabetes have been associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HQoL). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of HQoL and MetS in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 1071 people in Qazvin were identified via multi-stage cluster random sampling. MetS was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. HQoL was assessed using a 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and analyses of covariance. Results: Of 1071 people, 328 participants had MetS. Mean scores of whole domains of the SF-36 scale in MetS participants was lower than subjects without MetS. Mean scores of physical functioning (74.0 ± 23.4 vs. 82.2 ± 20.1, P < 0.001), bodily pain (61.3 ± 22.7 vs. 65.1 ± 20.6, P = 0.009), and general health (59.4 ± 18.2 vs. 63.5 ± 17.3, P < 0.001) domains were statistically different between participants without MetS and those with MetS. The mean scores of mental domains were not significantly different between the two groups. After adjusting for age and gender, domains of HQoL were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: After adjusting for age and gender, no association was observed between QoL domains and MetS. From a public health perspective, the increasing prevalence of MetS in the Iranian population requires effective health promotion policies and lifestyle modification to improve the patients' HQoL.
  4,620 337 -
Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine inequity and gross domestic product
Zainab Alimoradi, Chung-Ying Lin, Amir H Pakpour
October-December 2021, 4(4):129-130
  4,549 394 -
General health of under and over 45-year-old patients with coronary artery diseases
Razieh Parizad, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl, Mina Hosseinzadeh, Elnaz Javanshir, Mohammad Hasan Sahebihagh
January-March 2021, 4(1):23-29
Introduction: As a major cause of mortality, coronary artery diseases (CAD) have become an important health priority in recent years. They can affect physical, mental, and social aspects of health and one's perception of wellness and general health. The present study is aimed at determining and comparing the general health status of coronary artery patients in two age groups: Under 45 and 45 and older. Methods: This descriptive–analytical study was conducted with 368 participants. The subjects were selected from March to June 2018 using convenience sampling from Tabriz's Madani Heart Center and Shohada Hospital and then divided equally into four groups: Under 45 CAD patients; under 45 non-CAD patients; 45 and older CAD patients; and 45 and older non-CAD patients. The non-CAD patients were matched to the CAD patients regarding age (±3 years) and sex. The data collection instrument was a 28-item General Health Questionnaire that was administered in interviews with the participants. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The general health mean scores of the participants were as follows: under 45 CAD patients (41.75 ± 8.80) and their counterpart control group (61.35 ± 7.65); 45 and older CAD patients (40.02 ± 11.22) and their counterpart control group (65.40 ± 6.45). There was a significant difference between the scores of the case and control groups in both age groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results showed that disruption of general health is one of the influential factors in the incidence of CAD. To prevent such diseases, special attention should be given to the instruction of the factors that affect general health and its improvement.
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Aggression, self-esteem, and resilience among children: A school-based cross-sectional study from central India
Yachana Choudhary, Mohan Kumar, Rajendra Mahore, GW Lanke, Manju Dubey
July-September 2022, 5(3):115-121
Introduction: Adolescence as a life stage is associated with physical and psychological changes with an interplay of biological, social, and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of aggression among children and the factors associated with aggression. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in schools of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, between 2017 and 2019 among higher and higher secondary class children. All children from high and higher secondary classes were included, resulting in a sample of 192. Information on sociodemographic, family, psychosocial, lifestyle, addiction factors, aggression (Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire), self-esteem (Rosenberg self-esteem scale), and resilience (Nicholson McBride Resilience Questionnaire) were obtained. Results: The prevalence of aggression among children from Classes 9th to 12th was 49.5%; physical aggression was 42.7%, verbal aggression was 31.8%, anger was 44.3%, and hostility was 44.8%. Almost half (44.3%) of the children had self-esteem and only 1.6% of children had an established level of resilience. Of the sociodemographic factors considered, type of school, gender, parents' education; of the family factors considered, family members taking alcohol/drugs, parents having frequent arguments, parents hitting children and using abusive language; of the psychosocial, lifestyle and addiction factors considered, feeling neglected, grade, watching TV and practice of reading books were significantly associated with the presence of aggression in children (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall findings suggest the need for strengthening life skills education, positive immediate environment, coping at the individual level, social intelligence, and cautious approach toward boosting self-esteem.
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Social-distancing compliance among pedestrians in Ahvaz, South-West Iran during the Covid-19 pandemic
Gholam Abbas Shirali, Zahra Rahimi, Marzieh Araban, Mohammad Javad Mohammadi, Bahman Cheraghian
October-December 2021, 4(4):131-136
Introduction: Social distancing is a public health tool that seeks to reduce opportunities for an infectious agent to spread among individuals. The current study aimed at investigating the social-distancing compliance among pedestrians in Ahvaz city, South-west Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ahvaz, South-west Iran, from 2 to August 11, 2020. The data collection was performed based on observation of passers-by in the streets. Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Chi-square for trend, and logistic regression were used for the data analysis. Results: The overall compliance rate of social distancing was 16.3%. There was a statistically significant difference between age groups and social distancing (P < 0.001), but this relationship was not seen in gender (P = 0.12). The compliance rate of social distancing was significantly higher during morning hours than evening hours (P < 0.001). A significant inverse association was founded between the number of observed group members and the compliance rate of social distancing so that the odds of social distancing compliance among two members groups were 59% higher than the group of 6 and more members (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.47–1.72; P = 0.003). Conclusion: We found that the overall compliance rate of social distancing among the participants was very low and inefficient. This can make disease control difficult and leads the city to a critical situation in terms of coronavirus outbreaks. The findings can help health policymakers and health workers to plan and conduct preventive interventions.
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