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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effects of internet gaming and social media use on physical activity, sleep, quality of life, and academic performance among university students in Hong Kong: A preliminary study
Carrie Kwok, Pui Yu Leung, Ka Ying Poon, Xavier C. C. Fung
January-March 2021, 4(1):36-44
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_81_20  
Introduction: With the rapid increase in the prevalence of the Internet and/or smartphone usage worldwide in the last decade, engagement in internet gaming and social media may be problematic and may lead to negative consequences on mental and physical health among young adults. The main objectives of the present study are (1) to investigate how internet gaming and social media impact on physical activity, sleep quality, quality of life (QoL), and academic performance of university students in Hong Kong and (2) to investigate how physical activity and sleep associate with QoL and academic performance of university students in Hong Kong. Methods: This study employed a longitudinal design with 3-month duration. Hong Kong university students (n = 15; 4 males; mean age = 26.87 years) completed the questionnaires, wore a device to measure their physical activity and sleep, provided screen time data showing the time usage of applications on gaming and social media categories, and academic transcript for the study. Results: Internet gaming was negatively correlated with physical activity and psychological QoL (rs = −0.49 to −0.62); social media use was negatively correlated with physical activity and sleep quality (rs = −0.48 to −0.63); internet gaming and smartphone addiction were negatively correlated with academic performance (rs = −0.51 to −0.53); physical activity was positively correlated with psychological QoL (rs = 0.49). Conclusion: The results emphasized that internet gaming and smartphone addiction tend to have negative impact on physical activity, psychological QoL, sleep, and academic performance. The findings may be regarded as a direction for health-care providers to develop and evaluate the intervention to treat the specific type of internet/smartphone overuse.
  13,642 722 16
REVIEW ARTICLE
Impact of COVID-19-related fear and anxiety on job attributes: A systematic review
Nilofar Rajabimajd, Zainab Alimoradi, Mark D Griffiths
April-June 2021, 4(2):51-55
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_24_21  
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had different effects on different occupations. The present study was designed to systematically review the available evidence to investigate the pandemic on occupational effects. The academic databases of Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, Science Direct, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched systematically between December 2019 and February 2021. COVID-19-related fear, concern, worry, anxiety, and stress in combination with job-related MeSH terms were used to search the databases. The methodological quality of included papers was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale checklist. To synthesize data, a qualitative synthesis of findings was performed due to the small number of included studies (n = 4) and the heterogeneity of the assessed outcomes. Four studies were included in the final analysis. All four studies were cross-sectional, collected the data online, and comprised 1654 participants from four different countries. Fear of COVID-19 was associated with increased future career anxiety, perceived job insecurity, organizational and professional turnover intentions, and decreased job satisfaction. COVID-19 Anxiety Syndrome was associated with scores on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. As so few studies have been conducted, there are no conclusive findings. More studies using valid and reliable measures to assess fear/anxiety related to COVID-19 and its' association with job attributes are needed. It is also recommended that these associations are examined in variety of different jobs.
  6,103 475 52
The psychological impact of COVID-19 on health-care workers in African Countries: A systematic review
Anthony A Olashore, Oluyemi O Akanni, Ayodele L Fela-Thomas, Kadimo Khutsafalo
July-September 2021, 4(3):85-97
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_32_21  
In Africa, a systematic appraisal of the associated pattern of psychiatric disorders (PDs) among health-care workers (HCWs) is lacking. We, therefore, aimed to ascertain the pattern of PDs and their associated risk factors among HCWs in Africa during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. We identified 12 studies for inclusion after searching four databases: Web of Science, PubMed, AJOL, and EBSCOhost for articles written in English from January 2020 to April 2021. Anxiety disorder with rates from 9.5% to 73.3% and depression, 12.5% to 71.9%, were the most reported PDs. Availability of protective gear and information regarding preventive measures reduced the risk of developing any PDs, while psychoactive substance use, history of chronic medical illness, low level of resilience, and low social support increased these risks. A considerable proportion of HCWs manifest various psychological problems such as their counterparts in other parts of the world. Multiple factors were also implicated as risk, albeit associations were not consistently established across the studies. There is a need to increase research capacity tailored to the HCW population's needs in the continent.
  5,287 466 46
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Domestic and gender-Based violence: Pakistan scenario amidst COVID-19
Adnan Ashraf, Iftikhar Ali, Faseeh Ullah
January-March 2021, 4(1):47-50
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_45_20  
  4,529 377 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
“Psychological consequences and coping strategies of patients undergoing treatment for COVID-19 at a tertiary care hospital”: A qualitative study
Satyajeet Tulshidas Patil, Manjiri Chaitanya Datar, Jyoti Vittaldas Shetty, Nilesh Mahadeo Naphade
April-June 2021, 4(2):62-68
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_5_21  
Introduction: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global threat and has affected physical as well as mental health adversely. There had been an exponential rise in COVID-19 cases in India from May to October 2020. Isolation, hospitalization, and stigmatization were significant issues in COVID-19 crisis. The literature is sparse on the mental health effects on hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to describe the psychological consequences and coping strategies of COVID-19 patients admitted to tertiary health-care hospital. The objectives were (1) to assess the psychological consequences in COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital, (2) to assess the coping strategies in these COVID-19 patients, and (3) to find correlations of sociodemographic characteristics, psychological consequences, and coping strategies of these COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional qualitative study, 100 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection participated. In-depth interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaire. The narratives were coded into themes and correlations of variables generated were done using Chi-square test. Results: The most common themes about the psychological state of patients were loneliness and isolation (56%), adjustment issues in the hospital (54%), and concerns about family members (32%). Patients who had family members also suffering from COVID-19 illness (24%) had more concerns about their health (Chi-square 25.209, P = 0.00) and had worries of their future (Chi-square 7.023, P = 0.008). Females had more worries about family members (Chi-square 16.295, P = 0.00) and had more concerns about their own health (Chi-square 5.71, P = 0.01). The most common coping strategies used by patients were digital communication with family members (82%), distraction (58%), and communicating with other co-patients (30%) to deal with their psychological distress. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection leads to psychological distress due to multiple factors. Timely interventions with support for effective coping mechanisms can help in alleviating the distress.
  4,317 276 13
Leisure activity engagement as a predictor for quality of life in community-Dwelling older adults
Valiollah Marufkhani, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Monirsadat Mirzadeh, Kelly-Ann Allen, Seyedeh Ameneh Motalebi
January-March 2021, 4(1):2-7
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_38_20  
Introduction: Participation in leisure activities is greatly associated with the health and well-being of older adults. This study investigated the role of leisure activities in predicting the quality of life of community-dwelling older adults. Methods: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, 141 older adults were selected by cluster sampling method from public places. Data were collected through demographic characteristics, leisure time activities, and Lipad QoL questionnaires. The questionnaires were completed through face-to-face interviews. A regression model was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of older adult participants was 70.36 years (standard deviation = 8.99; range: 60–100 years) and 63.8% were male. The results also showed a low level of leisure time engagement and high level of QoL among older adults. The results of the current study indicated that education level and leisure time activity engagement were associated with a better QoL. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, engagement in leisure activities is related to improvements in the QoL of community-dwelling older adults. It is recommended that policymakers and families plan for and implement leisure time activities for older adults.
  3,518 250 -
A study of correlates of social networking site addiction among the undergraduate health professionals
Vishal Kanaiyalal Patel, Pradhyuman Chaudhary, Parveen Kumar, Disha Alkeshbhai Vasavada, Deepak Sachidanand Tiwari
January-March 2021, 4(1):30-35
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_1_21  
Introduction: Social networking sites (SNSs) are popular, and there is a concern regarding its addiction among the young adults. The present study aimed to find the correlates of SNS addiction among the undergraduate health professionals. Methods: This was a 6-month, cross-sectional, and observational study of 730 undergraduate health professionals of government medical, dental, and physiotherapy colleges of Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Participants were selected using stratified random sampling from the medical, dental, and physiotherapy government colleges. The Social Media Disorder Scale was used to detect the SNS addiction, the Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) Scale was used to find the severity of FOMO, the Perceived Stress Scale was used to detect the severity of stress, and the Insomnia Severity Index was used to detect the severity of insomnia in health professionals. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and multiple regression analysis were used for analysis of data. Results: The prevalence rate of SNS addiction was 15.02% among the undergraduate health professionals. Participants with addiction were using SNS widely (hostel, home, college, and leisure hours), spent more time and money on Internet, started SNS use before 5 years, and reported FOMO. They also reported moderate-to-severe stress and insomnia. Conclusion: SNS addiction is prevalent in undergraduate health professionals. High level of FOMO, perceived stress, and insomnia among the health professionals are important correlates with SNS addiction.
  3,125 255 6
Using occupational therapy process addressing sleep-related problems in neurorehabilitation: A cross-sectional modeling study
Chia-Wei Fan, Kathryn Drumheller
October-December 2021, 4(4):149-155
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_83_21  
Introduction: Sleep is one of the main occupations defined in the occupational therapy (OT) Practice Framework-4. Methods: A survey link was sent to registered OT practitioners in Florida (N = 14,978) in September 2019 through E-mail addresses obtained from the Florida Department of Health website. A convenience sample of 213 OT practitioners responded; the majority were female (87%), with 56% reporting over 10 years of experience treating patients with neurological disorders. The person-environment-occupation-performance (PEOP) OT process provided the guiding framework for the proposed model. Spearman's rho correlation coefficients determined the correlations between the variables of interest. Regression coefficients attained through hierarchical ordinal logistic regression estimated the log odds between the variables. Results: Therapists who wrote more sleep-oriented goals were predicted to use a greater variety of sleep-related assessments (odds ratio [OR] = 1.256; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.171–1.347). Furthermore, a greater repertoire of sleep interventions was predicted when more types of sleep assessments were utilized (OR = 2.134 (95% CI = 1.750–2.602); more clients expressed sleep-related concerns to the OT practitioners (OR = 1.207; 95% CI = 1.044–1.395); and when the OT practitioners worked in a greater number of clinical settings (OR = 1.308; 95% CI = 1.113–1.539). Conclusion: The findings confirmed that the PEOP model might guide the OT service process when addressing sleep-related problems in neurorehabilitation. However, variations between settings and environmental facilitators/barriers may also play a role in sleep-related interventions.
  3,024 248 -
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-associated perceived stress and anxiety among indian medical students: A cross-sectional study
Rishabh Sharma, Parveen Bansal, Manik Chhabra, Cherry Bansal, Malika Arora
July-September 2021, 4(3):98-104
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_9_21  
Introduction: The spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new public health concern that has shaken the whole world and possesses a challenge to the mental health of the public. This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the perceived stress, anxiety level, and mental health of medical students as well as to explore the knowledge of COVID-19 among Indian medical students. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among the undergraduate medical interns and postgraduate medical residents using the online data collection form. The form consisted of five domains (sociodemographic details, knowledge assessment, perceived stress assessment, generalized anxiety disorder-7 assessment, and assessment of the perceived level of change in social habits and personal hygiene related to COVID-19 outbreak). The statistical analysis of the responses was carried out by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: Two hundred participants filled the distributed survey, 61% (n = 122) were males. The mean knowledge score of 200 participants was 4.27 ± 1.45. The participant had a mean perceived stress score of 18.35 ± 6.28, and the females had a significantly higher perceived stress level than the male (P = 0.037). About 10% (n = 20) of the participants reported high perceived stress level (27–40), and moderate stress (score 14–26) was reported in 69% (n = 138) of the participants. However, only 21% (n = 42) of the participants reported low stress (0–13). While only moderate anxiety (score 10–14) was reported in 16% (n = 32) of the participant and 4% (n = 8) of the participants reported severe anxiety (score >14). Conclusion: There is an increased stress and anxiety in Indian medical students due to overburdened responsibilities and lack of adequate resources.
  2,784 263 27
Neuropsychological correlates of community function among major depressive disorder outpatients without comorbidity in Hong Kong: An exploratory cross-Sectional study
Daniel Kwasi Ahorsu, Ken Chung, Ho Hon Wong, Michael Gar Chung Yiu, Yat Fung Mok, Ka Shun Lei, Hector W. H. Tsang
January-March 2021, 4(1):8-14
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_66_20  
Introduction: This exploratory cross-sectional study examined the effect of depression on neuropsychological and community function among major depressive disorder (MDD) outpatients without comorbidity in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). Methods: Sixty-nine participants (23 for each group) participated in the study. They were assessed on psychological, neuropsychological function, and community function skills. Results: The results revealed that first episode MDD and recurrent episodes MDD outpatients still have a significantly higher level of depression, impaired mental state, and executive function and worse community function compared with HCs. Intervariable relationships analysis revealed qualitative differences between the three groups. Conclusion: The study provides preliminary evidence that MDD outpatients may need more targeted cognitive and psychosocial interventions to improve their executive and community function skills. Larger-scale studies to increase the validity and generalizability of the pilot data are suggested.
  2,748 177 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 might be systematically underestimated
Marc Oliver Rieger
April-June 2021, 4(2):81-83
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_7_21  
Estimations of the willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 are important to plan the vaccination process and also to coordinate efforts to reach herd immunity.Aims and Objectives: In this article, we test standard measures of vaccination willingness against systematic biases caused by misunderstandings and lack of information. We use a survey among 730 persons living in Germany at the start of the official vaccination program. We elicit willingness to vaccinate first in a standard form, and then again after clarifications and after providing additional information. We find that a substantial number of persons who state initially that they do not want to get vaccinated does so simply because they want to let people with higher risk be vaccinated first. Appropriately rephrasing the question increases the willingness by around 5 percentage points. Information about herd immunity increases the willingness by additional 7%, confirming previous findings. Standard survey-based estimates of vaccination willingness might underestimate the real number of persons who want to get a vaccination. This number can be increased even further by simply providing appropriate information on herd immunity. In our sample this increased vaccination willingness from 71.4% to 83.6%.
  2,599 206 14
LETTERS TO EDITOR
The role of social capital in the implementation of social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic
Mehran Alijanzadeh, Tooraj Harati
January-March 2021, 4(1):45-46
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_55_20  
  2,514 232 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Surfing over masked distress: Internet addiction and psychological well-being among a population of medical students
Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole, Adetunji Obadeji, Mobolaji Usman Dada
April-June 2021, 4(2):56-61
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_76_20  
Introduction: The Internet has become an integral part of our lives and tool for social interaction and communication and it is becoming worrisome; Internet use among students is assuming a dimension of profound preoccupation over other activities of daily living. Internet addiction (IA) may raise risk for sleep problem, and contribute to the development of some psychiatric disorders and worsening mental health. The aim of this study was to study the interrelationship between IA and psychological well-being of medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Ekiti State University College of Medicine among both preclinical and clinical medical students. The study population was the entire medical students. A total of 129 study participants (86 clinical and 43 preclinical students) were purposively enrolled, 83 males and 46 females. Data were collected from the students using a questionnaire that comprised four components: (i) Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, (ii) Young IA Test (YIAT), (iii) World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and (iv) Insomnia Severity Index. Results: About half (51.9%) of the students who engaged the Internet dwelled on social media. Moreover, the least reason for using the Internet was for their academic assignments. Twenty-two (17.1%) of the participants scored below the minimum score for addiction on YIAT. This study revealed a statistically insignificant negative correlation between the pairs of IA score and mental well-being (r = −121, P = 0.198) and alcohol use and mental well-being (r = −0.10, P = 0.279). There existed a statistically significant positive correlation between IA and insomnia (r = 0.320, P = 0.000) and IA and alcohol use (r = 0.428, P = 0.000). There was an insignificant positive relationship between alcohol use and insomnia (r = 0.072, P = 0.414). Conclusion: IA and its associated problems among students would require earnest intervention to curb problematic use in order to attain good mental well-being.
  2,486 253 6
Health-related quality of life in adults with metabolic syndrome: Qazvin metabolic disease study, Iran
Farnoosh Rashvand, Azam Ghorbani, Neda Esmailzadehha
April-June 2021, 4(2):69-73
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_72_20  
Introduction: As components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity, hypertension, and diabetes have been associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HQoL). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of HQoL and MetS in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 1071 people in Qazvin were identified via multi-stage cluster random sampling. MetS was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. HQoL was assessed using a 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and analyses of covariance. Results: Of 1071 people, 328 participants had MetS. Mean scores of whole domains of the SF-36 scale in MetS participants was lower than subjects without MetS. Mean scores of physical functioning (74.0 ± 23.4 vs. 82.2 ± 20.1, P < 0.001), bodily pain (61.3 ± 22.7 vs. 65.1 ± 20.6, P = 0.009), and general health (59.4 ± 18.2 vs. 63.5 ± 17.3, P < 0.001) domains were statistically different between participants without MetS and those with MetS. The mean scores of mental domains were not significantly different between the two groups. After adjusting for age and gender, domains of HQoL were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: After adjusting for age and gender, no association was observed between QoL domains and MetS. From a public health perspective, the increasing prevalence of MetS in the Iranian population requires effective health promotion policies and lifestyle modification to improve the patients' HQoL.
  2,479 195 -
Evaluation of perceived social stigma and burnout, among health-care workers working in covid-19 designated hospital of India: A cross-sectional study
Bhumika Rajendrakumar Patel, Bhumi G Khanpara, Prakash I Mehta, Kishan D Patel, Nidhi P Marvania
October-December 2021, 4(4):156-162
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_54_21  
Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has notably changed the working and community environment for health-care workers (HCWs) leading to burnout and feeling of being stigmatized by the community due to their work. This study aims at assessing the prevalence of burnout, perceived social stigma, and their demographic and work-related predictors. Methods: A cross-sectional study using Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and perceived stigma scale was carried out among 348 HCWs in COVID-19 designated hospital at Ahmedabad about 6 months after the onset of the outbreak in September 2020. The prevalence of burnout was assessed in two dimensions: disengagement and exhaustion. Severity of each was measured on low, moderate, and high levels. Results: Total 348 HCWs participated in study with a mean age of 28.05 ± 6.75 years. Two hundred and sixty-five (76.15%) HCWs experienced burnout and 200 (57.47%) high levels of perceived stigma. The level of burnout was measured on three severities. Factors which predict high burnout are female gender, lower education, unmarried status, living in a nuclear family, and high perceived stigma. Work characteristics such as duty hours, days of working, monthly income, and work experience does not predict burnout. Intern doctors had high burnout (87.25%, χ2 = 28.067, P < 0.001) while nurses had high perceived stigma (70.97%, χ2 = 14.307, P < 0.05). Perceived stigma is positively correlated with burnout (r = 0.26, P < 0.001) with its both components, disengagement (r = 0.19, P < 0.001) and exhaustion (r = 0.30, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Burnout and stigmatization are prevalent among HCWs. Psychological interventions needed to reduce their burden and improve quality care during pandemic.
  2,460 196 -
EDITORIAL
Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine inequity and gross domestic product
Zainab Alimoradi, Chung-Ying Lin, Amir H Pakpour
October-December 2021, 4(4):129-130
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_100_21  
  2,419 233 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Problematic internet use and its association with anxiety among undergraduate students
Lokesh Kumar Ranjan, Pramod R Gupta, Mayank Srivastava, Nilesh Maruti Gujar
October-December 2021, 4(4):137-141
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_30_21  
Introduction: The Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially the lives of adolescents and youth. With the growth of Internet users, there is also a growing concern about whether the use of the Internet is excessive and if so, whether it amounts to addiction or not. The present study aimed to find the Internet addiction and anxiety effects among undergraduate students. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted among undergraduate students of Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg and Yugantar Institute of Technology and Management, Rajnandgoan, Chhattisgarh selected using purposive sampling. The total enumeration method was obtained to select students. A total of 854 students were selected for the study. Students were assessed with sociodemographic datasheet, The Internet addiction test, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Results: About 4.3% of the undergraduate students reported severe Internet addiction, 7.7% had moderate-to-severe level of anxiety. Internet addiction was found to have significant positive correlation with overall anxiety, psychic anxiety, and somatic anxiety symptoms. In regression analysis, anxiety contributes significantly to the prediction of Internet addiction among undergraduate students. Conclusion: Students are suffering from stress, anxiety, and depression may have a tendency to use the Internet excessively to relieve low mood, insomnia, fearfulness, feelings of guilt, and hopelessness.
  2,341 308 -
General health of under and over 45-year-old patients with coronary artery diseases
Razieh Parizad, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl, Mina Hosseinzadeh, Elnaz Javanshir, Mohammad Hasan Sahebihagh
January-March 2021, 4(1):23-29
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_65_20  
Introduction: As a major cause of mortality, coronary artery diseases (CAD) have become an important health priority in recent years. They can affect physical, mental, and social aspects of health and one's perception of wellness and general health. The present study is aimed at determining and comparing the general health status of coronary artery patients in two age groups: Under 45 and 45 and older. Methods: This descriptive–analytical study was conducted with 368 participants. The subjects were selected from March to June 2018 using convenience sampling from Tabriz's Madani Heart Center and Shohada Hospital and then divided equally into four groups: Under 45 CAD patients; under 45 non-CAD patients; 45 and older CAD patients; and 45 and older non-CAD patients. The non-CAD patients were matched to the CAD patients regarding age (±3 years) and sex. The data collection instrument was a 28-item General Health Questionnaire that was administered in interviews with the participants. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The general health mean scores of the participants were as follows: under 45 CAD patients (41.75 ± 8.80) and their counterpart control group (61.35 ± 7.65); 45 and older CAD patients (40.02 ± 11.22) and their counterpart control group (65.40 ± 6.45). There was a significant difference between the scores of the case and control groups in both age groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results showed that disruption of general health is one of the influential factors in the incidence of CAD. To prevent such diseases, special attention should be given to the instruction of the factors that affect general health and its improvement.
  2,354 191 -
EDITORIAL
Changing Journal Title from Social Health and Behavior to Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior
Chung-Ying Lin, Amir H Pakpour
January-March 2021, 4(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_77_20  
  2,292 183 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Social-distancing compliance among pedestrians in Ahvaz, South-West Iran during the Covid-19 pandemic
Gholam Abbas Shirali, Zahra Rahimi, Marzieh Araban, Mohammad Javad Mohammadi, Bahman Cheraghian
October-December 2021, 4(4):131-136
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_74_21  
Introduction: Social distancing is a public health tool that seeks to reduce opportunities for an infectious agent to spread among individuals. The current study aimed at investigating the social-distancing compliance among pedestrians in Ahvaz city, South-west Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ahvaz, South-west Iran, from 2 to August 11, 2020. The data collection was performed based on observation of passers-by in the streets. Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Chi-square for trend, and logistic regression were used for the data analysis. Results: The overall compliance rate of social distancing was 16.3%. There was a statistically significant difference between age groups and social distancing (P < 0.001), but this relationship was not seen in gender (P = 0.12). The compliance rate of social distancing was significantly higher during morning hours than evening hours (P < 0.001). A significant inverse association was founded between the number of observed group members and the compliance rate of social distancing so that the odds of social distancing compliance among two members groups were 59% higher than the group of 6 and more members (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.47–1.72; P = 0.003). Conclusion: We found that the overall compliance rate of social distancing among the participants was very low and inefficient. This can make disease control difficult and leads the city to a critical situation in terms of coronavirus outbreaks. The findings can help health policymakers and health workers to plan and conduct preventive interventions.
  2,163 259 -
A preliminary study of self-reported childhood sexual abuse among college students from southern India
Rajesh Duraisamy Rathinam, Abhishek Singh, Vikas Gupta, Rajarajan Ramalingam, LD Darshini
April-June 2021, 4(2):74-80
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_8_21  
Introduction: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is truly a multidimensional issue having long-lasting effect on subject's physical and psychological health. The study was conducted with an aim to study various aspects of self-reported childhood sexual abuse in a sample of students from South India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out during July to September 2018 among 399 students of two colleges located at Puducherry using a self-administered questionnaire. The desired sample size was calculated considering the proportion of college students suffered from childhood sexual abuse as 53.2%. In each college, the line listing of students from 1st year to final year was done and simple random sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. The study was initiated after obtaining institutional ethical approval, and every student was ensured of complete confidentiality and privacy. Results: Of total 399 students, 130 (32.7%) students reported experiencing one or other form of CSA. Majority (40.0%) did not inform or share the instance of CSA to anyone. Fear of negative consequences (48.1%) and feelings of guilt (32.7%) were two top most factors that made them not to inform such abuse to their family members. Conclusion: Approximately one-third of students reported an incident of sexual abuse at least once in his/her life in Puducherry; thus, roots of CSA are deep in the society in which we live.
  2,192 180 1
Examining the prevalence of hypertension by urban–rural stratification: A Cross-sectional study of nepal demographic and health survey
Md Salauddin Khan, Sabira Naznin, Henry Ratul Halder, Umama Khan, Md Murad Hossain, Tanjim Siddiquee
January-March 2021, 4(1):15-22
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_73_20  
Introduction: Nepal has one of the highest prevalences of hypertension in South Asia, which also causes other cardiovascular diseases. However, no studies investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension by urban-rural stratification. Methods: We used a machine learning, Boruta algorithm to select risk factors and a tenfold random forest classifier to evaluate their performance. Finally, multivariate logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for knowledge generation. Results: The study included 7825 participants (urban: 4939; rural: 2886), where rural participants were slightly older (median: 37 years; interquartile range: 26–53) and females were more hypertensive (urban: n = 606, 34.5%; rural: n = 308, 31.2%). The prevalence of hypertension was 35.6% in urban and 34.1% in rural regions. The odds of hypertension increased in rural regions for advancing age, provinces (province 4 and 5), and ecological zones (hill and terai). Overweight and obese participants were more likely to have hypertension in both regions. Conclusion: The study recommends the rigorous improvement of public health programs in rural regions of province 4 and 5, concentrating on Dalit and Janajati older males from hill and terai ecological zones. Overweight and obese people from both regions also need special focus. Finally, policymakers and government officials have to tailor campaigns differently for robust implementation of the essential health-care package and multisectoral action plans to prevent and control hypertension.
  2,108 216 2
Assessment of the anxiety level and trust in information resources among iranian health-care workers during the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019
Elham Hasannia, Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh, Mitra Tavakolizadeh, Najmeh Davoudian, Mostafa Bay
October-December 2021, 4(4):163-168
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_68_21  
Introduction: The psychological impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on health-care workers (HWs) are undeniable, especially that knowledge on the disease is limited, and the credibility of some existing sources of information is questionable. We aimed to assess the level of anxiety and trust in information resources among Iranians' HWs. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1199 HWs between March and April 2020 in Iran. Data on demographic variables, sources of information about the COVID-19, and the trust level to them were collected using online self-administered questionnaires. The anxiety severity level was assessed using the Zung self-rating anxiety scale. Data were analyzed using simple and multiple linear regression models. Results: The mean age of participants was 32.5 ± 8.79, and 65.7% (n = 763) were male. 30.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) (CI: 27.8%–33.1%) of HWs had mild to moderate, and 21.3% (95% CI: 18.9%–23.7%) had severe and extremely severe levels of anxiety. TV (83.7%) and social media networks (58.2%) were the most frequent information sources. The lowest trust level and highest anxiety levels, and in contrast, the highest trust level and lowest anxiety levels were observed among social media users and TV viewers, respectively. The results of the multiple linear analysis showed that less work experience (P = 0.003), master's degree or above (P = 0.006), being divorced or widowed (P < 0.001), higher levels of exposure to COVID-19 patients (P < 0.05), having a history of mental illness (P < 0.001), and having underlying medical conditions (P < 0.001) were associated with higher anxiety levels. Conclusion: The study results revealed that the anxiety level among the HWs is relatively significant, and the trust level in social media networks was the lowest. Further psychological assessments and more investigations regarding the reasons for the reduction of trust and the development of the appropriate approaches to improve it are required.
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A multicenter study on problematic pornography consumption: prevalence and correlates among undergraduate medical students
Bhavin Naranbhai Kadavala, Disha Alkeshbhai Vasavada, Parveen Kumar, Renish Bhupenderabhai Bhatt, Vishal Kanaiyalal Patel, Deepak Sachidanand Tiwari
July-September 2021, 4(3):122-127
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_18_21  
Introduction: Internet pornography use is a sexual behavior, and it comprises a variety of online sexual activities, including watching pornography, online pornography exchange, and engaging in sex chats. Due to rise in Internet access and technologies, online pornography and other type of repetitive behaviors have increased. The current study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of problematic pornography consumption among undergraduate medical students. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out at seven different centers of Gujarat from October 2020 to December 2020. Online structured questionnaire in two different parts: (1) Demographic details and usage pattern of pornography among students, (2) Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale was prepared and shared with all undergraduate students through designated faculty. Logistic regression analysis was used for problematic pornography consumption (as dependent variable) and other categorical variables as independent variables. Results: A total of 1926 participants completed the study. The prevalence of problematic pornography consumption among participants was 14.6% (95% confidence interval 12.4–16.1). Male participants and participants who are in a romantic relationship have higher problematic pornography consumption. Participants' gender (odds ratio OR = 3.562), relationship status (OR = 1.636), weekly (OR = 1.749), and daily (OR = 1.733) pornography consumption emerged as statistically significant with the problematic pornography consumption from the logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Problematic pornography consumption is more prevalent among male under graduate medical students than females. It is important to educate the students about the potential harmful adverse effects of pornography and to develop a positive attitude toward sex.
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Marital adjustment as a predictor of quality of life in infertile couples
Samereh Eghtedar, Elnaz Asghari, Fatemeh-Sara Aparnak, Zoleikha Asgarloo, Parinaz Rasti
July-September 2021, 4(3):105-109
DOI:10.4103/shb.shb_10_21  
Introduction: Quality of life of couples may be affected by infertility. Information about their quality of life can be used for developing health promotion programs by the nurses. The purpose of this study was to predict the factors that affect the quality of life of infertile couples based on marital adjustment, factors related to infertility, and background characteristics. Methods: In this descriptive correlational study, 131 women and 79 men referred to an infertility center were recruited using a convenience method. Data were collected using the quality of life and Spiner's marital adjustment questionnaires. Regression analysis was used for the data analysis through the SPSS software version 16. Results: The means of the females and males' age were 35.74 ± 6.11 years and 32.45 ± 5.72 years, respectively. Of variables with a P < 0.1 that entered the regression analysis, marital adjustment (β = −0.444, P < 0.001), gender (β = 0.138, P < 0.023), and insurance (β = 0.199, P < 0.001) accounted for 78% of the observed variance in the quality of life of the infertile couples. Conclusion: The results revealed that fundamental interventions are needed to improve the quality of life of infertile couples. Providing the necessary training when couples go to the infertility clinic and improving insurance coverage for infertility treatment is recommended based on the results.
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