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   2021| April-June  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 28, 2021

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Impact of COVID-19-related fear and anxiety on job attributes: A systematic review
Nilofar Rajabimajd, Zainab Alimoradi, Mark D Griffiths
April-June 2021, 4(2):51-55
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had different effects on different occupations. The present study was designed to systematically review the available evidence to investigate the pandemic on occupational effects. The academic databases of Scopus, PubMed Central, ProQuest, Science Direct, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched systematically between December 2019 and February 2021. COVID-19-related fear, concern, worry, anxiety, and stress in combination with job-related MeSH terms were used to search the databases. The methodological quality of included papers was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale checklist. To synthesize data, a qualitative synthesis of findings was performed due to the small number of included studies (n = 4) and the heterogeneity of the assessed outcomes. Four studies were included in the final analysis. All four studies were cross-sectional, collected the data online, and comprised 1654 participants from four different countries. Fear of COVID-19 was associated with increased future career anxiety, perceived job insecurity, organizational and professional turnover intentions, and decreased job satisfaction. COVID-19 Anxiety Syndrome was associated with scores on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. As so few studies have been conducted, there are no conclusive findings. More studies using valid and reliable measures to assess fear/anxiety related to COVID-19 and its' association with job attributes are needed. It is also recommended that these associations are examined in variety of different jobs.
  10,639 863 70
“Psychological consequences and coping strategies of patients undergoing treatment for COVID-19 at a tertiary care hospital”: A qualitative study
Satyajeet Tulshidas Patil, Manjiri Chaitanya Datar, Jyoti Vittaldas Shetty, Nilesh Mahadeo Naphade
April-June 2021, 4(2):62-68
Introduction: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global threat and has affected physical as well as mental health adversely. There had been an exponential rise in COVID-19 cases in India from May to October 2020. Isolation, hospitalization, and stigmatization were significant issues in COVID-19 crisis. The literature is sparse on the mental health effects on hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to describe the psychological consequences and coping strategies of COVID-19 patients admitted to tertiary health-care hospital. The objectives were (1) to assess the psychological consequences in COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital, (2) to assess the coping strategies in these COVID-19 patients, and (3) to find correlations of sociodemographic characteristics, psychological consequences, and coping strategies of these COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional qualitative study, 100 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection participated. In-depth interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaire. The narratives were coded into themes and correlations of variables generated were done using Chi-square test. Results: The most common themes about the psychological state of patients were loneliness and isolation (56%), adjustment issues in the hospital (54%), and concerns about family members (32%). Patients who had family members also suffering from COVID-19 illness (24%) had more concerns about their health (Chi-square 25.209, P = 0.00) and had worries of their future (Chi-square 7.023, P = 0.008). Females had more worries about family members (Chi-square 16.295, P = 0.00) and had more concerns about their own health (Chi-square 5.71, P = 0.01). The most common coping strategies used by patients were digital communication with family members (82%), distraction (58%), and communicating with other co-patients (30%) to deal with their psychological distress. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection leads to psychological distress due to multiple factors. Timely interventions with support for effective coping mechanisms can help in alleviating the distress.
  6,896 470 20
Surfing over masked distress: Internet addiction and psychological well-being among a population of medical students
Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole, Adetunji Obadeji, Mobolaji Usman Dada
April-June 2021, 4(2):56-61
Introduction: The Internet has become an integral part of our lives and tool for social interaction and communication and it is becoming worrisome; Internet use among students is assuming a dimension of profound preoccupation over other activities of daily living. Internet addiction (IA) may raise risk for sleep problem, and contribute to the development of some psychiatric disorders and worsening mental health. The aim of this study was to study the interrelationship between IA and psychological well-being of medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Ekiti State University College of Medicine among both preclinical and clinical medical students. The study population was the entire medical students. A total of 129 study participants (86 clinical and 43 preclinical students) were purposively enrolled, 83 males and 46 females. Data were collected from the students using a questionnaire that comprised four components: (i) Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, (ii) Young IA Test (YIAT), (iii) World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and (iv) Insomnia Severity Index. Results: About half (51.9%) of the students who engaged the Internet dwelled on social media. Moreover, the least reason for using the Internet was for their academic assignments. Twenty-two (17.1%) of the participants scored below the minimum score for addiction on YIAT. This study revealed a statistically insignificant negative correlation between the pairs of IA score and mental well-being (r = −121, P = 0.198) and alcohol use and mental well-being (r = −0.10, P = 0.279). There existed a statistically significant positive correlation between IA and insomnia (r = 0.320, P = 0.000) and IA and alcohol use (r = 0.428, P = 0.000). There was an insignificant positive relationship between alcohol use and insomnia (r = 0.072, P = 0.414). Conclusion: IA and its associated problems among students would require earnest intervention to curb problematic use in order to attain good mental well-being.
  4,351 377 13
Willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 might be systematically underestimated
Marc Oliver Rieger
April-June 2021, 4(2):81-83
Estimations of the willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 are important to plan the vaccination process and also to coordinate efforts to reach herd immunity.Aims and Objectives: In this article, we test standard measures of vaccination willingness against systematic biases caused by misunderstandings and lack of information. We use a survey among 730 persons living in Germany at the start of the official vaccination program. We elicit willingness to vaccinate first in a standard form, and then again after clarifications and after providing additional information. We find that a substantial number of persons who state initially that they do not want to get vaccinated does so simply because they want to let people with higher risk be vaccinated first. Appropriately rephrasing the question increases the willingness by around 5 percentage points. Information about herd immunity increases the willingness by additional 7%, confirming previous findings. Standard survey-based estimates of vaccination willingness might underestimate the real number of persons who want to get a vaccination. This number can be increased even further by simply providing appropriate information on herd immunity. In our sample this increased vaccination willingness from 71.4% to 83.6%.
  4,175 279 18
A preliminary study of self-reported childhood sexual abuse among college students from southern India
Rajesh Duraisamy Rathinam, Abhishek Singh, Vikas Gupta, Rajarajan Ramalingam, LD Darshini
April-June 2021, 4(2):74-80
Introduction: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is truly a multidimensional issue having long-lasting effect on subject's physical and psychological health. The study was conducted with an aim to study various aspects of self-reported childhood sexual abuse in a sample of students from South India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out during July to September 2018 among 399 students of two colleges located at Puducherry using a self-administered questionnaire. The desired sample size was calculated considering the proportion of college students suffered from childhood sexual abuse as 53.2%. In each college, the line listing of students from 1st year to final year was done and simple random sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. The study was initiated after obtaining institutional ethical approval, and every student was ensured of complete confidentiality and privacy. Results: Of total 399 students, 130 (32.7%) students reported experiencing one or other form of CSA. Majority (40.0%) did not inform or share the instance of CSA to anyone. Fear of negative consequences (48.1%) and feelings of guilt (32.7%) were two top most factors that made them not to inform such abuse to their family members. Conclusion: Approximately one-third of students reported an incident of sexual abuse at least once in his/her life in Puducherry; thus, roots of CSA are deep in the society in which we live.
  3,953 269 1
Health-related quality of life in adults with metabolic syndrome: Qazvin metabolic disease study, Iran
Farnoosh Rashvand, Azam Ghorbani, Neda Esmailzadehha
April-June 2021, 4(2):69-73
Introduction: As components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity, hypertension, and diabetes have been associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HQoL). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of HQoL and MetS in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 1071 people in Qazvin were identified via multi-stage cluster random sampling. MetS was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. HQoL was assessed using a 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and analyses of covariance. Results: Of 1071 people, 328 participants had MetS. Mean scores of whole domains of the SF-36 scale in MetS participants was lower than subjects without MetS. Mean scores of physical functioning (74.0 ± 23.4 vs. 82.2 ± 20.1, P < 0.001), bodily pain (61.3 ± 22.7 vs. 65.1 ± 20.6, P = 0.009), and general health (59.4 ± 18.2 vs. 63.5 ± 17.3, P < 0.001) domains were statistically different between participants without MetS and those with MetS. The mean scores of mental domains were not significantly different between the two groups. After adjusting for age and gender, domains of HQoL were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: After adjusting for age and gender, no association was observed between QoL domains and MetS. From a public health perspective, the increasing prevalence of MetS in the Iranian population requires effective health promotion policies and lifestyle modification to improve the patients' HQoL.
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